Soy protein supports cardiovascular health by downregulating hydroxymethylglutaryl–coenzyme A reductase and sterol regulatory element-binding protein–2 and increasing antioxidant enzyme activity in rats with dextran sodium sulfate–induced mild systemic inflammation
ABSTRACT Animal and human studies have indicated that the presence of soy in the diet improves cardiovascular health. Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, little is known about how dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced systemic inflammation impacts overall heart health and, correspondingly, how soy protein modulates risk of CVD development in DSS-induced systemic inflammation. We hypothesized that soy protein-fed rats would have a lower risk of CVD by beneficial alteration of gene expression involving lipid metabolism and antioxidant capacity in DSS-induced systemic inflammation. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: casein, casein + DSS, soy protein, and soy protein + DSS. After 26 days, inflammation was induced in one group from each diet by incorporating 3% DSS in drinking water for 48 hours. Soy protein-fed rats had lower final body weights (P = .010), epididymal fat weights (P = .049), total cholesterol (P < .001), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P < .001). In regard to gene expression, soy protein-fed rats had lower sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 (P = .032) and hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (P = .028) levels and higher low-density lipoprotein receptor levels (P = .036). Antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase was higher among the soy protein groups (P = .037 and P = .002, respectively). These results suggest that soy protein positively influences cardiovascular health by regulating serum lipids through modified expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and its downstream genes (ie, hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase and low-density lipoprotein receptor) and by promoting the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase.
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ABSTRACT: Owing to the beneficial health effects on human cardiovascular system, soybeans and soy-related products have been a focus of intensive research. Soy isoflavones are known to be primarily responsible for the soy-related biological effects including anti-platelet activity but its in vivo relevancy has not been fully verified. Here we compared the role of adenosine, an active ingredient abundant in black soybean (BB) extract, in the anti-platelet effects of BB, to that of soy isoflavones. At the concentrations existing in BB, isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein could not attenuate collagen-induced platelet aggregation, however, adenosine significantly inhibited platelet aggregation with an equivalent potency to BB, suggesting that adenosine may be the major bioactive component. Consistently, the anti-aggregatory effects of BB disappeared after treatment of adenosine receptor antagonists. The effects of BB are mediated by adenosine through intracellular cAMP and subsequent attenuation of calcium mobilization. Of note, adenosine and BB significantly reduced platelet fibrinogen binding and platelet adhesion, other critical events for platelet activation, which were not affected by isoflavones. Taken together, we demonstrated that adenosine might be the major active ingredient for BB-induced anti-platelet activity, which will shed new light on the roles of adenosine as a bioactive compound in soybeans and soy-related food.Thrombosis Research 01/2013; 131(3). DOI:10.1016/j.thromres.2013.01.002 · 2.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P < .05). Antioxidant levels of BDC were not different from RDC or CON. Both RDC and BDC lowered TG compared to CON (P < .05). The rats fed RDC had higher high-density lipoprotein levels compared to the CON (P < .05). In rats given RDC, fatty acid synthase gene expression was down-regulated and low-density lipoprotein receptor transcription was up-regulated (P < .05). Sensory panelists preferred the appearance and surface smoothness of the regular chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P < .001). Although blooming blunted the robust antioxidant response produced by regular dark chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings.Nutrition research 05/2013; 33(5):414-421. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2013.03.004 · 2.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States. Watermelon, rich in antioxidants and other bioactive components, may be a viable method to improve CVD risk factors through reduced oxidative stress. The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of watermelon powder consumption on lipid profiles, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated rats fed an atherogenic diet. We hypothesized that watermelon would increase antioxidant capacity and reduce blood lipids and inflammation through modulation of related gene expression. Forty male-weanling (21 days old) Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 per group, total N = 40) in a 2 diets (control or 0.33% watermelon) × 2 treatments (with or without DSS) factorial design using an atherogenic diet. Watermelon-fed groups exhibited significantly lower serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P< .05). C-reactive protein levels were significantly lower in watermelon-fed rats than the control (P= .001). In addition, oxidative stress as measured by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was significantly lower in watermelon groups (P= .001). Total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities were greater in watermelon groups (P< .05). Aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and lactate dehydrogenase were significantly lower in DSS-treated rats when watermelon was consumed (P< .05). Fatty acid synthase, 3-hydroxy-3methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2, and cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression was significantly downregulated in the watermelon group without DSS (P< .05). These findings indicate that watermelon improves risk factors for CVD in rats through better lipid profiles, lower inflammation, and greater antioxidant capacity by altering gene expression for lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.Nutrition Research 01/2015; 35(3). DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2014.12.005 · 2.59 Impact Factor