Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Psychological Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.94). 12/2011; 42(9):1879-90. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291711002674
Source: PubMed


DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors.
An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models).
A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism.
We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.

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    • "Inventory for the DSM-5 – Short Form (PID-5-SF; Krueger et al., 2012). The PID-5-SF is a 25- item instrument consisting of five dimensions: negative affect (5 items; e.g., ''I worry about almost everything'' [a = .76]), "
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    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.054 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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    • "The construct of spitefulness was recently introduced to the psychology literature and is characterized by the willingness to incur self-harm in order to inflict costs on another individual (Marcus et al., 2014). Finally, the PID-5 was recently developed in order to capture a broad spectrum of pathological personality dimensions that include negative affect (i.e., the tendency to experience an array of negative emotions), detachment (i.e., characterized by introversion, social isolation, and anhedonia), antagonism (i.e., aggressive tendencies accompanied by assertions of dominance and grandiosity), disinhibition (i.e., impulsivity and sensation seeking), and psychoticism (i.e., a disconnection from reality and a tendency for illogical thought patterns; Krueger et al., 2012). "
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    Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 09/2015; 34(7):555-586. DOI:10.1521/jscp.2015.34.7.555 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    • "The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al. 2012) is a 220-item questionnaire used to measure maladaptive personality traits as characterized in the DSM- 5. Responses are selected from a four-point scale ranging from 0 ( " very false or often false " ) to 3 ( " very true or often true " ). The items represent 25 empirically derived facets that load onto 5 higher-order personality domains: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism . "
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