Initial construction of a maladaptive personality trait model and inventory for DSM-5

Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Psychological Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.94). 12/2011; 42(9):1879-90. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291711002674
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT DSM-IV-TR suggests that clinicians should assess clinically relevant personality traits that do not necessarily constitute a formal personality disorder (PD), and should note these traits on Axis II, but DSM-IV-TR does not provide a trait model to guide the clinician. Our goal was to provide a provisional trait model and a preliminary corresponding assessment instrument, in our roles as members of the DSM-5 Personality and Personality Disorders Workgroup and workgroup advisors.
An initial list of specific traits and domains (broader groups of traits) was derived from DSM-5 literature reviews and workgroup deliberations, with a focus on capturing maladaptive personality characteristics deemed clinically salient, including those related to the criteria for DSM-IV-TR PDs. The model and instrument were then developed iteratively using data from community samples of treatment-seeking participants. The analytic approach relied on tools of modern psychometrics (e.g. item response theory models).
A total of 25 reliably measured core elements of personality description emerged that, together, delineate five broad domains of maladaptive personality variation: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism.
We developed a maladaptive personality trait model and corresponding instrument as a step on the path toward helping users of DSM-5 assess traits that may or may not constitute a formal PD. The inventory we developed is reprinted in its entirety in the Supplementary online material, with the goal of encouraging additional refinement and development by other investigators prior to the finalization of DSM-5. Continuing discussion should focus on various options for integrating personality traits into DSM-5.

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    • "Inventory for the DSM-5 – Short Form (PID-5-SF; Krueger et al., 2012). The PID-5-SF is a 25- item instrument consisting of five dimensions: negative affect (5 items; e.g., ''I worry about almost everything'' [a = .76]), "
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    ABSTRACT: Basic personality features have been found to be associated with a variety of romantic relationship outcomes including the strategies that individuals employ to retain their romantic partners. In the current studies, we were interested in determining whether pathological personality features were associated with mate retention behaviors. We examined the associations between the pathological personality features captured by the PID-5 and mate retention behaviors across two samples (i.e., an undergraduate sample and a community sample). Pathological personality features reflecting negative affect, detachment, and antagonism were associated with mate retention behaviors such that individuals who possessed these features were less likely to provide benefits to their partner and more likely to inflict costs on them. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings and how they can influence the tactics that individuals employ to maintain their romantic relationships.
    Personality and Individual Differences 09/2015; 83. DOI:10.1016/j.paid.2015.03.054 · 1.86 Impact Factor
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    • "The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5; Krueger et al. 2012) is a 220-item questionnaire used to measure maladaptive personality traits as characterized in the DSM- 5. Responses are selected from a four-point scale ranging from 0 ( " very false or often false " ) to 3 ( " very true or often true " ). The items represent 25 empirically derived facets that load onto 5 higher-order personality domains: negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism . "
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    Experimental Brain Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00221-015-4406-6 · 2.04 Impact Factor
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    • "See factor loadings in Table 1S in the supplemental material. The correspondence between our factor solution and the target solution of Krueger et al. (2012) was supported in terms of acceptable congruency coefficients ranging from .89 to .97 with a mean of 93.6. However, the level of measurement invariance between clinical (75% women) and community (81% women) subsamples was less satisfactory (mean of congruency coefficients = .78, "
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    ABSTRACT: DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.
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