Dengue: a newly emerging viral infection in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
ABSTRACT Prior to 2009 dengue fever had not been reported in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. In 2009, a few patients with dengue fever-like illness were reported, some of whom tested positive for dengue antibodies. In 2010, 516 suspected cases were reported, including some with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS); 80 (15·5%) were positive for dengue antibodies. DENV RNA was detected in five patients and PCR-based typing showed that three of these belonged to serotype 1 and two to serotype 2. This was confirmed by sequence typing. Two clones of dengue virus, one belonging to serotype 1 and the other to serotype 2 appeared to be circulating in Andaman. Emergence of severe diseases such as DHF and DSS might be due to recent introduction of a more virulent strain or because of the enhancing effect of sub-neutralizing levels of antibodies developed due to prior infections. There is a need to revise the vector-borne disease surveillance system in the islands.
- SourceAvailable from: Koichiro Tamura[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We announce the release of the fourth version of MEGA software, which expands on the existing facilities for editing DNA sequence data from autosequencers, mining Web-databases, performing automatic and manual sequence alignment, analyzing sequence alignments to estimate evolutionary distances, inferring phylogenetic trees, and testing evolutionary hypotheses. Version 4 includes a unique facility to generate captions, written in figure legend format, in order to provide natural language descriptions of the models and methods used in the analyses. This facility aims to promote a better understanding of the underlying assumptions used in analyses, and of the results generated. Another new feature is the Maximum Composite Likelihood (MCL) method for estimating evolutionary distances between all pairs of sequences simultaneously, with and without incorporating rate variation among sites and substitution pattern heterogeneities among lineages. This MCL method also can be used to estimate transition/transversion bias and nucleotide substitution pattern without knowledge of the phylogenetic tree. This new version is a native 32-bit Windows application with multi-threading and multi-user supports, and it is also available to run in a Linux desktop environment (via the Wine compatibility layer) and on Intel-based Macintosh computers under the Parallels program. The current version of MEGA is available free of charge at (http://www.megasoftware.net).Molecular Biology and Evolution 09/2007; 24(8):1596-9. · 10.35 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We report on the development and application of a rapid assay for detecting and typing dengue viruses. Oligonucleotide consensus primers were designed to anneal to any of the four dengue virus types and amplify a 511-bp product in a reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). First, we produced a cDNA copy of a portion of the viral genome in a reverse transcriptase reaction in the presence of primer D2 and then carried out a standard PCR (35 cycles of heat denaturation, annealing, and primer extension) with the addition of primer D1. The resulting double-stranded DNA product of the RT-PCR was typed by two methods: dot blot hybridization of the 511-bp amplified product to dengue virus type-specific probes or a second round of PCR amplification (nested PCR) with type-specific primers, yielding DNA products the unique sizes of which were diagnostic for each dengue virus serotype. The accumulated data demonstrated that dengue viruses can be accurately detected and typed from viremic human serum samples.Journal of Clinical Microbiology 04/1992; 30(3):545-51. · 4.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A comprehensive survey was carried out in the Port Blair town in Andaman and Nicobar islands, in order to study the distribution and relative prevalence of Aedes aegypti during the monsoon (July'1997-October'1997) season using larval survey and adult collection methods. Ae. aegypti was found in all 21 localities surveyed. Spatial variations in distribution was evident which was closely related to population density. The nature of the larval habitats was observed to be similar in all the localities. For both outdoor and in-door containers, breeding preference ratio was highest for mud/brick/cement containers, followed by metal and plastic containers. These findings are correlated with water storage habits of the residents in the localities surveyed.The Journal of communicable diseases 10/1999; 31(3):185-92.