Dengue: A newly emerging viral infection in Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

Regional Medical Research Centre (ICMR), Port Blair, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India.
Epidemiology and Infection (Impact Factor: 2.54). 12/2011; 140(10):1920-4. DOI: 10.1017/S0950268811002500
Source: PubMed


Prior to 2009 dengue fever had not been reported in the Andaman and Nicobar archipelago. In 2009, a few patients with dengue fever-like illness were reported, some of whom tested positive for dengue antibodies. In 2010, 516 suspected cases were reported, including some with dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS); 80 (15·5%) were positive for dengue antibodies. DENV RNA was detected in five patients and PCR-based typing showed that three of these belonged to serotype 1 and two to serotype 2. This was confirmed by sequence typing. Two clones of dengue virus, one belonging to serotype 1 and the other to serotype 2 appeared to be circulating in Andaman. Emergence of severe diseases such as DHF and DSS might be due to recent introduction of a more virulent strain or because of the enhancing effect of sub-neutralizing levels of antibodies developed due to prior infections. There is a need to revise the vector-borne disease surveillance system in the islands.

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Available from: Suresh Babu B V, Jul 07, 2015
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    • "Dengue has emerged as a global health problem, as evidenced by a series of epidemics throughout the tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of the world. The WHO has reported that there are 50-100 million infections worldwide every year, now endemic in more than 100 countries and mostly affect Asia, Africa, and the Americas with Southeasern Asia [1] . The pathophysiology of dengue virus (DENV) infection is multifactorial involving complex interactions among viral and host factors. "
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    Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 01/2015; 5(1):47–50. DOI:10.1016/S2222-1808(14)60625-3
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    ABSTRACT: Arboviral infections, viz. dengue and chikungunya are prevalent in the Andaman & Nicobar Islands. During post-tsunami developmental activities, large plastic tanks were provided to the native, Nicobarese tribal households of Car Nicobar Island, to store water for domestic use. These tanks form an ideal breeding source for mosquitoes, especially the vectors of dengue/chikungunya viruses, and few cases of IgM ELISA positives for these infections were identified from this island. In view of this scenario, a survey was carried out to determine the prevalence of these mosquito vectors. Ten randomly selected clusters (neighborhoods with 50 houses each) were surveyed. Each household was inspected for the water holding receptacles. This was the first attempt to determine the prevalence and distribution of the vectors of dengue/chikungunya virus in this Island, against the backdrop of various post tsunami rehabilitation and developmental activities. The stegomyia indices with respect to houses and containers were high during the winter and post-monsoon periods (House Index and Container Index were 69.40 and 46.41 in winter, while 54.40 and 39.49 in post-monsoon). Large plastic tanks (500–1000 l capacity) recorded the highest Breteau Index during all the four seasons. This habitat was observed to support four mosquito species, of which 52% constituted Aedes albopictus. The pupae/person index ranged from 0 to 0.2946. A community-based control approach with multiple stakeholders is envisaged to prevent the vector breeding. This approach would be feasible and effective, with active participation of the tribal chieftain along with village headmen.
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