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    ABSTRACT: Lower-limb edema is recognized as an untoward side effect of intrathecal opioid therapy. Cellulitis, an acute, spreading pyogenic inflammation of the dermis and subcutaneous tissue, predisposed by persistent leg edema, can become problematic in patients on intraspinal opioid infusion therapy. To present a case of recurrent cellulitis in an elderly lady with persistent leg edema associated with intrathecal morphine/hydromorphone infusion therapy. Sixty-one-year-old woman with intractable chronic low back pain and bilateral leg pain treated with an intrathecal infusion of morphine up to 5 mg/day over 3 months with satisfactory pain control developed progressive lower extremity edema, complicated by recurrent cellulitis, requiring repeated hospitalization and intravenous antibiotic treatment. Switching to intrathecal hydromorphone helped minimally. Intrathecal baclofen and clonidine infusion resulted in complete resolution of leg edema and pain relief over the following 12 months. Intrathecal Baclofen and Clonidine may be used as alternatives to provide spinally mediated antinociception when intraspinal opioid fails due to pharmacological side effects such as persistent edema.
    Pain Medicine 04/2010; 11(6):972-6. · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Neuropathic pain (NP) is often refractory to pharmacologic and non-interventional treatment. On behalf of the International Association for the Study of Pain Neuropathic Pain Special Interest Group (NeuPSIG), the authors evaluated systematic reviews, clinical trials, and existing guidelines for the interventional management of NP. Evidence is summarized and presented for neural blockade, spinal cord stimulation (SCS), intrathecal medication, and neurosurgical interventions in patients with the following peripheral and central NP conditions: herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN); painful diabetic and other peripheral neuropathies; spinal cord injury NP; central post-stroke pain; radiculopathy and failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS); complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS); and trigeminal neuralgia and neuropathy. Due to the paucity of high-quality clinical trials, no strong recommendations can be made. Four weak recommendations based on the amount and consistency of evidence, including degree of efficacy and safety, are: (1) epidural injections for herpes zoster; (2) steroid injections for radiculopathy; (3) SCS for FBSS; and (4) SCS for CRPS type 1. Based on the available data, we recommend not to use sympathetic blocks for PHN nor RF lesions for radiculopathy. No other conclusive recommendations can be made due to the poor quality of available of data. Whenever possible, these interventions should either be part of randomized clinical trials or documented in pain registries. Priorities for future research include randomized clinical trials; long-term studies; and head-to-head comparisons among different interventional and non-interventional treatments.
    Pain 06/2013; · 5.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) play obligatory roles in diverse physiological functions. Pathological conditions leading to changes in their biophysical properties and expression levels may cause malfunctions of VGCC-mediated activities, resulting in disease states. It is believed that changes in VGCC properties under pain-inducing conditions may play a causal role in the development of chronic pain, including nerve injury-induced pain or neuropathic pain. For the past several decades, preclinical and clinical research in developing VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain management has been fruitful, leading to some U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs currently available for chronic pain management. However, their efficacy in pain relief is limited in some patients, and their long-term use is limited by their side-effect profiles. Certainly, there is room for improvement in developing more subtype-specific VGCC blockers or modulators for chronic pain conditions. In this review, we summarized the most recent preclinical and clinical studies related to chronic pain medications acting on the VGCC. We also included clinical trials aiming to expand the application of approved VGCC drugs to different pain states derived from various pathological conditions, as well as drug combination therapies trying to improve the efficacies and side-effect profiles of current pain medications.
    Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics 10/2009; 6(4):679-92. · 5.38 Impact Factor