Relationships between birthweight and grip strength throughout the life course suggest that early influences on the growth and development of muscle are important for long-term muscle function. However, little is known about parental influences on children's grip strength. We have explored this in the Southampton Women's Survey, a prospective general population cohort study from before conception through childhood. Grip strength was measured using a Jamar handgrip dynamometer in the mother at 19 weeks' gestation and her partner, and in the child at age 4 years. Pre-pregnancy heights and weights were measured in the mothers; reported weights and measured heights were available for the fathers. Complete data on parents and children were available for 444 trios. In univariable analyses, both parents' grip strengths were significantly associated with that of the child (r = 0.17, P < 0.001 for mothers; r = 0.15, P = 0.002 for fathers). These correlations were similar to that between the grip strength of the mothers and the fathers (r = 0.17, P < 0.001). In the multivariable model, after adjustment for child's height and physical activity, the correlations with the child's grip strength were attenuated, being 0.10 (P = 0.02) and 0.11 (P = 0.01) for mothers' and fathers' grip strength respectively. The findings show that grip strength of each parent is associated with that of the child, indicating that heritable influences and the shared family environment influence the development of muscle strength. This contributes to our understanding of the role of heritable and environmental factors on early muscle growth and development, which are important for muscle function across the life course.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: to investigate the relationship between grip strength and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).
cross-sectional survey within a cohort study design.
the county of Hertfordshire in the UK.
a total of 2,987 community-dwelling men and women aged 59-73 years of age.
grip strength was used as a marker of sarcopaenia and measured using a Jamar dynamometer. HRQoL was assessed using the eight domain scores of the Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire, and subjects in the lowest sex-specific fifth of the distribution were classified as having 'poor' status for each domain.
men and women with lower grip strength were significantly more likely to report a poor as opposed to excellent to fair overall opinion of their general health (GH) [odds ratio (OR) per kilogram decrease in grip strength = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.06-1.19, P < 0.001 in men, 1.13, 95% CI = 1.07-1.20, P < 0.001 in women]. Among men, after adjustment for age, size, physical activity and known co-morbidity, decreased grip strength was associated with increased prevalence of poor SF-36 scores for the physical functioning (PF) (OR per kilogram decrease in grip strength = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.06, P = 0.007) and GH domains (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01-1.05, P = 0.01). Similar associations were seen in women.
our findings suggest that lower grip strength is associated with reduced HRQoL in older men and women. This does not appear to be explained by age, size, physical activity or co-morbidity and may reflect the link between sarcopaenia and generalised frailty. Individuals with sarcopaenia may benefit from interventions to improve muscle mass and strength before the onset of chronic disorders usually associated with impaired HRQoL.
Age and Ageing 08/2006; 35(4):409-15. DOI:10.1093/ageing/afl024 · 3.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary purpose of this study was to establish clinical norms for adults aged 20 to 75+ years on four tests of hand strength. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength and a pinch gauge to measure tip, key, and palmar pinch. A sample of 310 male and 328 female adults, ages 20 to 94, from the seven-county Milwaukee area were tested using standardized positioning and instructions. Right hand and left hand data were stratified into 12 age groups for both sexes. This stratification provides a means of comparing the score of individual patients to that of normal subjects of the same age and sex. The highest grip strength scores occurred in the 25 to 39 age groups. For tip, key, and palmar pinch the average scores were relatively stable from 20 to 59 years, with a gradual decline from 60 to 79 years. A high correlation was seen between grip strength and age, but a low to moderate correlation between pinch strength and age. The newer pinch gauge used in this study appears to read higher than that used in a previous normative study. Comparison of the average hand strength of right-handed and left-handed subjects showed only minimal differences.
Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 03/1985; 66(2):69-74. · 2.57 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to develop an initial understanding about grip strength, pinch strength and hand size in normally developing 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children. This study also investigated whether there were relationships among lowing variables: hand strength, hand size, age, and gender. A Jamar dynamometer was used to measure grip strength, and a Jamar pinch gauge was used to measure lateral pinch strength. The study population consisted of 81 preschool children from culturally an economically diverse communities in New York City. Hand strength and hand size were found to increase with each age level. The 5-year-olds were strongest in grip and pinch ability and had larger hands than the 3-year-olds and 4-year-olds. There was no statistically significant difference observed between the boys and the girls or the preferred hand in terms of hand strength.
Journal of Hand Therapy 10/2002; 15(4):340-6. DOI:10.1016/S0894-1130(02)80005-9 · 2.00 Impact Factor
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