Effect of 5% fluoride varnish application on caries among school children in rural Brazil: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT To determine the efficacy of 5% sodium fluoride (NaF) varnish application in reducing caries increments in the permanent dentition of rural Brazilian school children over the course of 12 months.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was conducted with 379 children aged 7-14 years who attended three schools in Brazil between January 2006 and December 2007. During this period, each school was visited four times at 6-month interval for recruitment, dental examinations, and fluoride varnish applications. Recruited children were randomly assigned to either a treatment (5% NaF varnish, n = 198) or a control group (placebo, n = 181). Trained interviewers collected data on oral health habits and sociodemographic characteristics from the children. Information on the child's diet was collected through a 7-day food frequency diary. Caries examinations were conducted using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). The efficacy of fluoride varnish application on caries prevention was reported as a preventive fraction (PF). Crude caries increments of decayed and filled surfaces (DFS) were compared between fluoride varnish and placebo groups. A generalized linear model (GLM) was constructed to test the differences in DFS increments between the groups after accounting for confounding factors.
Of the total sample (N = 379), 210 (55.4%) children had completed 12 months of follow-up including one or two applications of fluoride varnish or placebo. At the baseline examination, the children in the treatment and control groups presented on average 6.2 and 5.6 DFS, respectively (P < 0.001). After 12 months of follow-up, the children in the varnish group showed significantly lower DFS increments than did children in the control group (10.8 versus 13.3; P < 0.007), with PF of 40% (95% CI: 34.3-45.7%; P < 0.0001).
The results of this study suggest that applications of 5% NaF varnish can be recommended as a public health measure for reducing caries incidence in this high-caries-risk population.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries-free children using DMFT and significant caries (SiC) indexes in different caries prevalence groups in cities of the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. The methodology proposed by the World Health Organization (1997) was used for caries diagnosis in 2,378 individuals. According to the DMFT index obtained in each evaluated city, 3 prevalence groups with representative samples were formed, being classified as low, moderate and high. SiC index was used to classify the one third of the population with the highest caries prevalence. In the low prevalence group, 32.4% of the children were caries free (DMFT=0), with mean DMFT of 2.29 and SiC index of 4.93. In the moderate prevalence group, 21.8% of the children were caries free, with mean DMFT of 3.36 and SiC of 6.74. Only 6.9% of the children in the high prevalence group were caries free and the mean DMFT was 5.54 (SiC=9.62). There was a great heterogeneity in dental caries distribution within the studied population, as well as a high caries prevalence considering the 3 classifications. Other indexes besides DMFT could be used to improve oral health assessment during establishment of the treatment plan and intervention.Journal of applied oral science: revista FOB 09/2008; 16(4):286-92. · 0.39 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To present the evidence summarized in the Cochrane fluoride reviews. An overview of the results of selected systematic reviews. Relevant systematic reviews published in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR) were identified by searching 'The Cochrane Library issue 4, 2008', using the terms 'Fluoride' and 'Caries'. Complete Cochrane reviews assessing the effectiveness of any fluoride-based intervention for preventing caries were selected, and their main features and findings were reviewed. 14 papers were identified of which 11 were relevant full-text reviews. The results were assessed of 7 reviews published from 2002 to 2004 concerning the relative effectiveness of 4 topical fluoride treatments (toothpastes, gels, varnishes and mouthrinses) in preventing caries in children and adolescents. Comparisons in these reviews were made against non-fluoride controls, against each other, and against different combinations. Findings from 4 reviews published between 2004 and 2006, assessing other fluoride modalities (slow release devices, milk), specific comparison/site (fluoride varnishes versus sealants in occlusal surfaces), and particular population and caries outcome (fluorides for white spot lesions in orthodontic patients) were also assessed. The 7 reviews confirm a clear and similar effectiveness of topical fluoride toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes for preventing caries, and show that additional caries reduction can be expected when another topical fluoride is combined with fluoride toothpaste. Evidence is insufficient to confirm the effectiveness of slow release fluoride devices and fluoridated milk. The comparative effectiveness of other modes of delivering fluoride, such as to orthodontic patients is also as yet unclear. Fissure sealants appear more effective than fluoride varnish for preventing occlusal caries but the size of the difference is unclear. The benefits of topical fluorides are firmly established based on a sizeable body of evidence from randomized controlled trials. The size of the reductions in caries increment in both the permanent and the primary dentitions emphasizes the importance of including topical fluoride delivered through toothpastes, rinses, gels or varnishes in any caries preventive program. However, trials to discern potential adverse effects are required, and data on acceptability. Better quality research is needed to reach clearer conclusions on the effects of slow release fluoride devices, milk fluoridation, sealants in comparison with fluoride varnishes, and of different modes of delivering fluoride to orthodontic patients.European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry. Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 09/2009; 10(3):183-91.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate different measurements of prevalence and inequality in the distribution of dental caries as to their partial collinearity, and ability in expressing associations with the supply of fluoridated tap water, indices of socioeconomic status and provision of dental services. The DMFT, the Significant Caries (SiC) Index, the proportions of children with high- (DMFT > or = 4) and rampant- (DMFT > or = 7) caries experience, caries-free children (DMFT = 0), the Gini coefficient and the Dental Health Inequality Index (DHII) were the dental outcomes appraised in a sample comprising 18 718 oral examination records for 11- and 12-year-old schoolchildren in 131 towns of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Spatial data analysis assessed the association between aggregate figures of dental indices and several covariates. The DMFT, the SiC Index and the proportions of children with high- and rampant-caries experience presented strong linear associations (Pearson r near or higher than 0.95), and an analogous profile of correlation with indicators of socioeconomic status, dental services and access to fluoride tap water. The same was observed for the DHII, the Gini coefficient and the proportion of caries-free children. These observations involve the perception of variables in each set as interchangeable tools for ecological studies assessing factors influencing, respectively, prevalence levels and inequality in the distribution of dental disease. An improved characterization of the skewed distribution of caries experience demands the concurrent estimation of figures of prevalence and inequality in dental outcomes. This strategy may contribute to the design of socially appropriate programmes of oral health promotion.Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 03/2004; 32(1):41-8. · 1.80 Impact Factor