Prognostic significance of Dicer cellular levels in soft tissue sarcomas.
ABSTRACT In the present study we assessed the expression and distribution of endoribonuclease Dicer in soft tissue tumors and correlated its cellular levels with clinicopathological parameters, including clinical outcome. Dicer was expressed in the tested cell line as well as in the majority of the sarcomas examined. Staining intensity was significantly higher in sarcomas compared with benign neoplasms and in high-grade compared with low-grade tumors. Elevated Dicer immunoreactivity was strongly associated with poor outcome and Dicer cellular levels were an independent negative prognostic factor.
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ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs play an important role in cancer initiation and development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether polymorphisms in miRNA machinery genes are associated with the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and T allele carriers (CT + TT) genotypes had lower risk of CRC, while the DICER1 rs3742330, DROSHA rs10719, and XPO5 rs11077 polymorphisms were not associated with CRC in the full study sample. Specifically, male RAN rs14035 CT heterozygotes and XPO5 rs11077 AA genotype (CT/AA) carriers experienced reduced CRC susceptibility (both colon and rectal). Subgroup analysis demonstrated that the combined RAN rs14035 CT + TT genotype was associated with rectal cancer, but not colon cancer. In addition, the DICER1 rs3742330 AG genotype was associated with a significantly increased risk of colon cancer. Stratified analysis revealed the RAN rs14035 combined CT+TT genotype was associated with decreased CRC risk in male patients without diabetes mellitus (DM) and in patients with rectal cancer. In addition, we found the RAN rs14035 CC genotype was related to a decreased risk of CRC with respect to tumor size and metabolism of homocysteine and folate. Furthermore, patients diagnosed with hypertension or DM who carried the DROSHA rs10719 CC genotype showed increased CRC risk, while the XPO5 rs11077 AC+CC genotype led to increased CRC risk in patients with hypertension only. Our results indicate variations in RAN rs14035, DICER1 rs3742330, XPO5 rs11077, and DROSHA rs10719 of Korean patients are significantly associated with their risk of CRC.PLoS ONE 10(7):e0131125. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131125
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ABSTRACT: The survival rate of cancer patients has increased considerably in the last 20 years owing to significant efforts made in prevention, early detection protocols, combined chemotherapy regimens, targeted therapies, refined radiotherapy and cancer vaccines. However, metastasis and acquired resistance to current therapies represent two major challenges for achieving long-term cure. Therefore, new treatment strategies must be developed. One promising alternative is epigenetic-based therapies, of which miRNAs are at the forefront. MicroRNAs are endogenous small non-coding RNAs, often deregulated in cancer, which regulate gene expression by specific binding to the 3'UTR of target genes. They are excellent candidates for therapy since miRNAs can regulate multiple targets of the same or different pathways, thereby minimising the risk of resistance development or compensatory mechanisms. In this review, the mechanisms that lead to miRNA deregulation in cancer, their feasibility as therapeutic tools and the different strategies for the pharmacological manipulation of miRNAs in preclinical animal models are discussed.Pharmacological Research 03/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.03.006.
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ABSTRACT: Dicer, an RNase III-type endonuclease, is the key enzyme involved in RNA interference and microRNA pathways. Aberrant expression of Dicer is reported in several human cancers. Our aim was to assess the prognostic role of Dicer in breast cancer. The entire series comprised 666 invasive breast cancers (IBCs), 480 DCIS cases (397 associated with IBC and 83 pure DCIS) and 305 lymph node metastases. Cytoplasmic Dicer expression by immunohistochemistry was scored as negative (no staining) and positive (weak, moderate or strong staining). Dicer staining was assessable in 446 IBC, 128 DCIS and 101 lymph node metastases. Expression of Dicer was observed in 33% (145/446) of IBCs, 34% (44/128) of DCIS and 57% (58/101) of lymph node metastases. Dicer expression was increased in nodal metastases compared to primary tumours (p<0.001); and was associated with ER negativity (p<0.001), HER2 positivity (p<0.001), high Ki67 labeling index (p<0.001) and expression of basal-like biomarkers (p = 0.002). Dicer positivity was more frequent in the HER2 overexpressing (p<0.001) and basal-like (p = 0.002) subtypes compared to luminal A subtype. Dicer expression was associated with reduced overall survival (OS) on univariate analysis (p = 0.058) and remained an independent predictor of OS on multivariate analysis (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.43-5.62, p = 0.003), with nodal status (HR 2.61, 95% CI 1.18-5.80, p = 0.018) and PR (HR 0.28, 95% CI 0.13-0.59, p = 0.001). Further, moderate or strong expression of Dicer was associated with improved disease-free survival in the HER2-overexpressing subtype compared to negative or weak expression (p = 0.038). Deregulated Dicer expression is associated with aggressive tumour characteristics and is an independent prognostic factor for OS. Our findings suggest that Dicer is an important prognostic marker in breast cancer and that its prognostic role may be subtype specific.PLoS ONE 12/2013; 8(12):e83724. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0083724