Electroencephalogram and heart rate measures of working memory at 5 and 10 months of age.
ABSTRACT We recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and heart rate (HR) from infants at 5 and 10 months of age during baseline and performance on the looking A-not-B task of infant working memory (WM). Longitudinal baseline-to-task comparisons revealed WM-related increases in EEG power (all electrodes) and EEG coherence (medial frontal-occipital electrode pairs) at both ages. WM-related decreases in HR were only present at 5 months, and WM-related increases in EEG coherence became more localized by 10 months. Regression analyses revealed that baseline-to-task changes in psychophysiology accounted for variability in WM performance at 10 but not 5 months. HR and EEG power (medial frontal and lateral frontal electrodes) were unique predictors of variability in 10-month WM performance. These findings are discussed in relation to frontal lobe development and represent the first comprehensive longitudinal analysis of age-related changes in the behavioral and psychophysiological correlates of WM.
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ABSTRACT: During the first year, infants begin to exhibit initial evidence of working memory and inhibitory control in conjunction with substantial maturation of the frontal cortex and corresponding neural circuitry. Currently, relatively little is known about the neural and autonomic resources that are recruited in response to increased executive demands during the first year of development. To this end, we recorded electroencephalogram (EEG; 6-9 Hz) and electrocardiogram from 10-month-olds during a working memory and inhibitory control task (looking A-not-B). Analyses compared measures of frontal functioning (EEG power, EEG coherence, heart rate) during nonreversal (working memory) and reversal (working memory+inhibitory control) trials. The increased cognitive demand of inhibitory control processing was associated with increases in heart rate and frontal coherence (medial frontal-lateral frontal, medial frontal-temporal, medial frontal-medial parietal, and medial frontal-occipital electrode pairs). Thus, synchronized activity across distributed cortical regions appeared to be essential to inhibitory control processes during infancy. The addition of inhibitory control processes, however, was not associated with any changes in neuronal activity (EEG power). These findings are discussed in relation to other neuroscience findings and provide insight into the development of integrated frontal functioning in infancy.Developmental cognitive neuroscience. 04/2012; 2(2):235-43.
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ABSTRACT: Moderate, yet relatively consistent, associations between cognitive performance and shyness have been reported throughout the child and adult literatures. The current study assessed longitudinal associations between cognition (i.e., executive functioning) and parent-report temperamental shyness from infancy to early childhood and used temporal order to explore directionality of the relations. Two hundred eleven children contributed data at multiple ages (5-months, 10-months, 2-years, 3-years, and 4-years). The results indicated a complex pattern of association between cognition and shyness in early development and provided tentative support for both cognitive ability and temperament as causal agents at different developmental time points.International Journal of Behavioral Development 05/2014; 38(3):266-276. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Little is known about factors that promote optimal development of executive function (EF) skills. The focus of this study was associations among early maternal behaviors, infant frontal brain electrical activity, and child EF at age 4 and following kindergarten. Infant frontal electroencephalogram was collected from 56 infants at 10 months of age and maternal positive affect was observed. Children completed EF measures in the research laboratory at age 4; parental-reported EF was obtained following children's kindergarten year. Maternal positive affect and infant frontal brain electrical activity measured when the children were 10 months jointly and uniquely predicted both preschool and post-kindergarten EF. Findings suggest parenting behavior and brain development in infancy are precursors of later self-regulatory EF abilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol.Developmental Psychobiology 06/2012; · 3.16 Impact Factor