Capillary Electrophoresis

University of Minnesota, Department of Chemistry, 207 Pleasant Street South East, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455, United States.
Analytical Chemistry (Impact Factor: 5.64). 12/2011; 84(2):577-96. DOI: 10.1021/ac203205a
Source: PubMed


Capillary Electrophoresis (CE) is a field that continues to grow. All areas of CE including theory, separation modes, instrumentation and applications remain highly active areas of research. This review includes a cross section of references from all areas of the field published in the two year period between Jan. 2010 and Nov. 2011. Web of Science reports over 4,000 articles, including 396 reviews, published with CE in the title, abstract or key words during this time period. Of these we have chosen 218 papers. We have attempted to choose papers that showcase some of the newest and most exciting developments in the field. It should be noted that papers describing electrophoresis in microfabricated devices were excluded since another review in this issue exclusively covers this topic.

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    • "trophoretic mobility of NPs based on their charge and size distribution in the sample , when an external electric field is applied . Ions move toward the electrode of opposite charge . The separation would be achieved by the mobility of the species depending not only on the solvent medium , but also on the charges , sizes , and shapes of the NPs ( Geiger et al . , 2012 ) . CE requires minimal amounts of samples and chemicals , it is a fast analysis and it generates minimum waste . Its flexibility and versatility are unrivaled and the same instrumentation can be used to separate a diverse range of analytes , both large and small molecules , whether charged or uncharged ( Powers et al . , 2006 ; Zhang e"
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    ABSTRACT: Many products used in everyday life are made with the assistance of nanotechnologies. Cosmetic, pharmaceuticals, sunscreen, powdered food are only few examples of end products containing nano-sized particles (NPs), generally added to improve the product quality. To evaluate correctly benefits vs. risks of engineered nanomaterials and consequently to legislate in favor of consumer's protection, it is necessary to know the hazards connected with the exposure levels. This information implies transversal studies and a number of different competences. On analytical point of view the identification, quantification and characterization of NPs in food matrices and in cosmetic or personal care products pose significant challenges, because NPs are usually present at low concentration levels and the matrices, in which they are dispersed, are complexes and often incompatible with analytical instruments that would be required for their detection and characterization. This paper focused on some analytical techniques suitable for the detection, characterization and quantification of NPs in food and cosmetics products, reports their recent application in characterizing specific metal and metal-oxide NPs in these two important industrial and market sectors. The need of a characterization of the NPs as much as possible complete, matching complementary information about different metrics, possible achieved through validate procedures, is what clearly emerges from this research. More work should be done to produce standardized materials and to set-up methodologies to determine number-based size distributions and to get quantitative date about the NPs in such a complex matrices.
    Frontiers in Chemistry 08/2015; 3:48. DOI:10.3389/fchem.2015.00048
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    • "We also performed qualitative and quantitative analysis of each of these compounds by two capillary electromigration methods: capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). These two techniques are excellent tools for separation of both ionogenic and electroneutral compounds [23] [24] [25] and are frequently used for analysis and characterization of amino acids and their derivatives [26] [27] [28]. In addition, these DAP derivatives were characterized by their effective electrophoretic mobilities determined by CZE in acidic and alkaline classical or isoelectric background electrolytes (BGEs) or by MEKC in acidic and alkaline BGEs containing a micellar pseudostationary phase constituted by the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or the cationic detergent "
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    ABSTRACT: Thirteen mono-N-acyl derivatives of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid (DAP) - new potential inhibitors of the DapE-encoded N-succinyl-l,l-diaminopimelic acid desuccinylase (DapE; EC were analyzed and characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies and two capillary electromigration methods - zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC). Structural features of DAP derivatives were characterized by IR and NMR spectroscopies whereas CZE and MEKC were applied to evaluate their purity and to investigate their electromigration properties. Effective electrophoretic mobilities of these compounds were determined by CZE in acidic and alkaline background electrolytes (BGEs) and by MEKC in acidic and alkaline BGEs containing a pseudostationary phase of anionic detergent sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) or cationic detergent cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The best separation of DAP derivatives, including diastereomers of some of them, was achieved by MEKC in an acidic BGE (500 mM acetic acid, pH 2.54, 60 mM SDS). All DAP derivatives were examined for their ability to inhibit catalytic activity of DapE from Haemophilus influenzae and ArgE from Escherichia coli. None of these DAP derivatives worked as an effective inhibitor of HiDapE but one derivative, N-fumaryl, Me-ester-DAP, was found to be moderate inhibitor of EcArgE, thus providing a promising lead structure for further studies on ArgE inhibitors.
    Analytical Biochemistry 09/2014; 467. DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2014.08.032 · 2.22 Impact Factor
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    • "Ultimately, reporters containing these portable degrons could be directly incorporated into patient samples either through native endocytosis or by the addition of a cell permeable sequences such as a myristol tag or the TAT sequence [46]. Measurement of substrate conversion to product (ubiquitinated substrate) could be accomplished by incorporating an environment-sensitive fluorophore on the substrate or by using a microelectrophoretic method such as capillary electrophoresis (CE) to separate and quantify the substrate and product [18]–[20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the primary pathway responsible for the recognition and degradation of misfolded, damaged, or tightly regulated proteins. The conjugation of a polyubiquitin chain, or polyubiquitination, to a target protein requires an increasingly diverse cascade of enzymes culminating with the E3 ubiquitin ligases. Protein recognition by an E3 ligase occurs through a specific sequence of amino acids, termed a degradation sequence or degron. Recently, degrons have been incorporated into novel reporters to monitor proteasome activity; however only a limited few degrons have successfully been incorporated into such reporters. The goal of this work was to evaluate the ubiquitination kinetics of a small library of portable degrons that could eventually be incorporated into novel single cell reporters to assess proteasome activity. After an intensive literary search, eight degrons were identified from proteins recognized by a variety of E3 ubiquitin ligases and incorporated into a four component degron-based substrate to comparatively calculate ubiquitination kinetics. The mechanism of placement of multiple ubiquitins on the different degron-based substrates was assessed by comparing the data to computational models incorporating first order reaction kinetics using either multi-monoubiquitination or polyubiquitination of the degron-based substrates. A subset of three degrons was further characterized to determine the importance of the location and proximity of the ubiquitination site lysine with respect to the degron. Ultimately, this work identified three candidate portable degrons that exhibit a higher rate of ubiquitination compared to peptidase-dependent degradation, a desired trait for a proteasomal targeting motif.
    PLoS ONE 10/2013; 8(10):e78082. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0078082 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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