Exposure assessment for estimation of the global burden of disease attributable to outdoor air pollution.
ABSTRACT Ambient air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health impacts. Previous assessments of global attributable disease burden have been limited to urban areas or by coarse spatial resolution of concentration estimates. Recent developments in remote sensing, global chemical-transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements facilitate virtually complete spatially resolved global air pollutant concentration estimates. We combined these data to generate global estimates of long-term average ambient concentrations of fine particles (PM(2.5)) and ozone at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 1990 and 2005. In 2005, 89% of the world's population lived in areas where the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM(2.5) (annual average) was exceeded. Globally, 32% of the population lived in areas exceeding the WHO Level 1 Interim Target of 35 μg/m(3), driven by high proportions in East (76%) and South (26%) Asia. The highest seasonal ozone levels were found in North and Latin America, Europe, South and East Asia, and parts of Africa. Between 1990 and 2005 a 6% increase in global population-weighted PM(2.5) and a 1% decrease in global population-weighted ozone concentrations was apparent, highlighted by increased concentrations in East, South, and Southeast Asia and decreases in North America and Europe. Combined with spatially resolved population distributions, these estimates expand the evaluation of the global health burden associated with outdoor air pollution.
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ABSTRACT: We report the progress of an ongoing effort by the Air Resources Laboratory, NOAA to build a prototype regional Chemical Analysis System (ARLCAS). The ARLCAS focuses on providing long-term analysis of the three dimensional (3D) air-pollutant concentration fields over the continental U.S. It leverages expertise from the NASA Earth Science Division-sponsored Air Quality Applied Science Team (AQAST) for the state-of-science knowledge in atmospheric and data assimilation sciences. The ARLCAS complies with national operational center requirement protocols and aims to have the modeling system to be maintained by a national center. Meteorology and chemistry observations consist of land-, air- and space-based observed and quality-assured data. We develop modularized testing to investigate the efficacies of the various components of the ARLCAS. The sensitivity testing of data assimilation schemes showed that with the increment of additional observational data sets, the accuracy of the analysis chemical fields also increased incrementally in varying margins. The benefit is especially noted for additional data sets based on a different platform and/or a different retrieval algorithm. We also described a plan to apply the analysis chemical fields in environmental surveillance at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.International journal of environmental research and public health. 12/2014; 11(12):12795-12816.
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ABSTRACT: Indoor air pollution (IAP) is a key contributor to the global burden of disease mainly in developing countries. The use of solid fuel for cooking and heating is the main source of IAP in developing countries, accounting for an estimated 3.5 million deaths and 4.5% of Disability-Adjusted Life Years in 2010. Other sources of IAP include indoor smoking, infiltration of pollutants from outdoor sources and substances emitted from an array of human utilities and biological materials. Children are among the most vulnerable groups for adverse effects of IAP. The respiratory system is a primary target of air pollutants resulting in a wide range of acute and chronic effects. The spectrum of respiratory adverse effects ranges from mild subclinical changes and mild symptoms to life threatening conditions and even death. However, IAP is a modifiable risk factor having potential mitigating interventions. Possible interventions range from simple behavior change to structural changes and from shifting of unclean cooking fuel to clean cooking fuel. Shifting from use of solid fuel to clean fuel invariably reduces household air pollution in developing countries, but such a change is challenging. This review aims to summarize the available information on IAP exposure during childhood and its effects on respiratory health in developing countries. It specifically discusses the common sources of IAP, susceptibility of children to air pollution, mechanisms of action, common respiratory conditions, preventive and mitigating strategies.World journal of clinical pediatrics. 05/2013; 2(2):6-15.
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ABSTRACT: The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10(-5). If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.Scientific reports. 01/2014; 4:6561.