Exposure Assessment for Estimation of the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Outdoor Air Pollution

School of Population and Public Health, The University of British Columbia, 2206 East Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T1Z3, Canada.
Environmental Science & Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 12/2011; 46(2):652-60. DOI: 10.1021/es2025752
Source: PubMed


Ambient air pollution is associated with numerous adverse health impacts. Previous assessments of global attributable disease burden have been limited to urban areas or by coarse spatial resolution of concentration estimates. Recent developments in remote sensing, global chemical-transport models, and improvements in coverage of surface measurements facilitate virtually complete spatially resolved global air pollutant concentration estimates. We combined these data to generate global estimates of long-term average ambient concentrations of fine particles (PM(2.5)) and ozone at 0.1° × 0.1° spatial resolution for 1990 and 2005. In 2005, 89% of the world's population lived in areas where the World Health Organization Air Quality Guideline of 10 μg/m(3) PM(2.5) (annual average) was exceeded. Globally, 32% of the population lived in areas exceeding the WHO Level 1 Interim Target of 35 μg/m(3), driven by high proportions in East (76%) and South (26%) Asia. The highest seasonal ozone levels were found in North and Latin America, Europe, South and East Asia, and parts of Africa. Between 1990 and 2005 a 6% increase in global population-weighted PM(2.5) and a 1% decrease in global population-weighted ozone concentrations was apparent, highlighted by increased concentrations in East, South, and Southeast Asia and decreases in North America and Europe. Combined with spatially resolved population distributions, these estimates expand the evaluation of the global health burden associated with outdoor air pollution.

Download full-text


Available from: Sarah B Henderson, Apr 22, 2015
  • Source
    • "AOD values measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites are the most commonly used data. The association between PM and AOD has been assessed though statistical models (Brauer et al., 2012; Koelemeijer et al., 2006; Liu et al., 2009; Ma et al., 2014; van Donkelaar et al., 2010); however, most of these previous studies were conducted at large spatial scales, e.g., at the global, national and regional scale, and few studies utilized AOD data from MODIS to estimate the within-city variability of PM. Adding land use variables (road network, land use types and industrial emissions) can improve the spatial resolution of the model (Kloog et al., 2011, 2012). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Development of exposure assessment model is the key component for epidemiological studies concerning air pollution, but the evidence from China is limited. Therefore, a linear mixed effects (LME) model was established in this study in a Chinese metropolis by incorporating aerosol optical depth (AOD), meteorological information and the land use regression (LUR) model to predict ground PM10 levels on high spatiotemporal resolution. The cross validation (CV) R(2) and the RMSE of the LME model were 0.87 and 19.2 μg/m(3), respectively. The relative prediction error (RPE) of daily and annual mean predicted PM10 concentrations were 19.1% and 7.5%, respectively. This study was the first attempt in China to estimate both short-term and long-term variation of PM10 levels with high spatial resolution in a Chinese metropolis with the LME model. The results suggested that the LME model could provide exposure assessment for short-term and long-term epidemiological studies in China.
    Environmental Pollution 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.09.042 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Other countries are expected to also set limit values for PM 2.5 . Exceedances of these health-related benchmarks frequently occur in many of the 15 most populated cities and regions worldwide (Brauer et al., 2011). Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) was monitored historically and is still regulated in some countries. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Respirable particulate matter present in outdoor and indoor environments is a health hazard. The particle concentrations can quickly change, with steep gradients on short temporal and spatial scales, and their chemical composition and physical properties vary considerably. Existing networks of aerosol particle measurements consist of limited number of monitoring stations, and mostly aim at assessment of compliance with air quality legislation regulating mass of particles of varying sizes. These networks can now be supplemented using small portable devices with low-cost sensors for assessment of particle mass that may provide higher temporal and spatial resolution if we understand the capabilities and characteristics of the data they provide. This paper overviews typical currently available devices and their characteristics. In addition it is presented original results of measurement and modelling in the aim of one low-cost PM monitor validation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Environmental Pollution 09/2015; 206:696-704. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.035 · 4.14 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "New evidence on exposure-risk information and improved global exposure estimates (Brauer et al., 2012; Burnett et al., 2014) suggest higher exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) than previously estimated (WHO, 2014a). An important fraction of the exposure leading to those health impacts occurs in cities, due to the higher density of human activities and their emissions to the air. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For reducing health impacts from air pollution, it is important to know the sources contributing to human exposure. This study systematically reviewed and analysed available source apportionment studies on particulate matter (of diameter of 10 and 2.5 microns, PM10 and PM2.5) performed in cities to estimate typical shares of the sources of pollution by country and by region. A database with city source apportionment records, estimated with the use of receptor models, was also developed and available at the website of the World Health Organization.Systematic Scopus and Google searches were performed to retrieve city studies of source apportionment for particulate matter. Six source categories were defined. Country and regional averages of source apportionment were estimated based on city population weighting.A total of 419 source apportionment records from studies conducted in cities of 51 countries were used to calculate regional averages of sources of ambient particulate matter. Based on the available information, globally 25% of urban ambient air pollution from PM2.5 is contributed by traffic, 15% by industrial activities, 20% by domestic fuel burning, 22% from unspecified sources of human origin, and 18% from natural dust and salt. The available source apportionment records exhibit, however, important heterogeneities in assessed source categories and incompleteness in certain countries/regions.Traffic is one important contributor to ambient PM in cities. To reduce air pollution in cities and the substantial disease burden it causes, solutions to sustainably reduce ambient PM from traffic, industrial activities and biomass burning should urgently be sought. However, further efforts are required to improve data availability and evaluation, and possibly to combine with other types of information in view of increasing usefulness for policy making.
    Atmospheric Environment 09/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.08.087 · 3.28 Impact Factor
Show more