Properties of food grade (edible) surfactants affecting subsurface remediation of chlorinated solvents.
ABSTRACT In this research, several food grade (edible) surfactants are systematically evaluated for various loss mechanisms: precipitation, adsorption, and coacervation (for nonionic surfactants). Cloud points for the polyethoxylate sorbitan (T-MAZ) surfactants are much higher than aquifer temperatures, and the effects on surfactant losses should be minimum. Precipitation boundaries of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) and sodium mono- and dimethylnaphthalene sulfonate (SMDNS) were established. Existing precipitation models successfully predicted precipitation boundaries for SMDNS but showed minor deviations for AOT results. AOT was more susceptible to precipitation than the cosurfactant evaluated, SMDNS. Nonionic polyethoxylate (POE = 20) sorbitan monostearate (T-MAZ-60) and POE(80) sorbitan monolaurate (T-MAZ-28) formed liquid crystal phases at high surfactant concentrations (> 0.5 wt %) white POE(20) sorbitan monolaurate (T-MAZ-20) and POE(20) sorbitan monooleate (T-MAZ-80) remained in aqueous solution at concentrations up to 5 wt %. T-MAZ-60 and T-MAZ-28 also showed a continuous increase of ''adsorption'' at high surfactant concentrations (likely due to liquid crystal formation). Other surfactants showed Langmuirian-shaped isotherms at high concentration, while the cosurfactant SMDNS experienced negligible adsorption. On a mass basis, the maximum adsorption (q(max) in mu mol/g) was higher for T-MAZ surfactants than for alkylphenol ethoxylates, AOT, and disulfonated surfactants.
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ABSTRACT: In situ remediation technologies have the potential to alter subsurface properties such as natural organic matter (NOM) content or character, which could affect the organic carbon‐water partitioning behavior of chlorinated organic solvents, including dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Laboratory experiments were completed to determine the nature and extent of changes in the partitioning behavior of trichloroethene (TCE) caused by in situ chemical oxidation or in situ surfactant flushing. Sandy porous media were obtained from the subsurface at a site in Orlando, Florida. Experiments were run using soil slurries in zero‐headspace reactors (ZHRs) following a factorial design to study the effects of porous media properties (sand vs. loamy sand with different total organic carbon [TOC] contents), TCE concentration (DNAPL presence or absence), and remediation agent type (potassium permanganate vs. activated sodium persulfate, Dowfax 8390 vs. Tween 80). Results revealed that the fraction of organic carbon (f oc) of porous media after treatment by oxidants or surfactants was higher or lower relative to that in the untreated media controls. Isotherm experiments were run using the treated and control media to measure the distribution coefficient (K d) of TCE. Organic carbon‐water partitioning coefficient values (K oc) calculated from the experimental data revealed that K oc values for TCE in the porous media were altered via treatment using oxidants and surfactants. This alteration can affect the validity of estimates of contaminant mass remaining after remediation. Thus, potential changes in partitioning behavior should be considered to help avoid decision errors when judging the effectiveness of an in situ remediation technology.Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation 05/2012; 32(2). DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2011.01377.x · 1.25 Impact Factor
Environment International 01/2011; 37:1362-1375. · 5.66 Impact Factor