Comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography fast quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC × GC-qMS) for urinary steroid profiling: mass spectral characteristics with chemical ionization.
ABSTRACT Comprehensive 2-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC), coupled to either a time of flight mass spectrometry (TOF-MS) or a fast scanning quadrupole MS (qMS) has greatly increased the peak capacity and separation space compared to conventional GC-MS. However, commercial GC × GC-TOFMS systems are not equipped with chemical ionization (CI) and do not provide dominant molecular ions or enable single ion monitoring for maximal sensitivity. A GC × GC-qMS in mass scanning mode was investigated with electron ionization (EI) and positive CI (PCI), using CH(4) and NH(3) as reagent gases. Compared to EI, PCI-NH(3) produced more abundant molecular ions and high mass, structure-specific ions for steroid acetates. Chromatography in two dimensions was optimized with a mixture of 12 endogenous and 3 standard acetylated steroids (SM15-AC) relevant to doping control. Eleven endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in normal urine based on their two retention times, and EI and PCI-NH(3) mass spectra; nine of these endogenous target steroid acetates were identified in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients. The difference between the urinary steroids profiles of normal individuals and those from CAH patients can easily be visually distinguished by their GC × GC-qMS chromatograms. We focus here on the comparison and interpretation of the various mass spectra of the targeted endogenous steroids. PCI-NH(3) mass spectra were most useful for unambiguous molecular weight determination and for establishing the number of -OH by the losses of one or more acetate groups. We conclude that PCI-NH(3) with GC × GC-qMS provides improved peak capacity and pseudomolecular ions with structural specificity.
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ABSTRACT: More than 90% of cases of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH, the inherited inability to synthesize cortisol) are caused by 21-hydroxylase deficiency. Females with severe, classic 21-hydroxylase deficiency are exposed to excess androgens prenatally and are born with virilized external genitalia. Most patients cannot synthesize sufficient aldosterone to maintain sodium balance and may develop potentially fatal "salt wasting" crises if not treated. The disease is caused by mutations in the CYP21 gene encoding the steroid 21-hydroxylase enzyme. More than 90% of these mutations result from intergenic recombinations between CYP21 and the closely linked CYP21P pseudogene. Approximately 20% are gene deletions due to unequal crossing over during meiosis, whereas the remainder are gene conversions--transfers to CYP21 of deleterious mutations normally present in CYP21P. The degree to which each mutation compromises enzymatic activity is strongly correlated with the clinical severity of the disease in patients carrying it. Prenatal diagnosis by direct mutation detection permits prenatal treatment of affected females to minimize genital virilization. Neonatal screening by hormonal methods identifies affected children before salt wasting crises develop, reducing mortality from this condition. Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid replacement are the mainstays of treatment, but more rational dosing and additional therapies are being developed.Endocrine Reviews 07/2000; 21(3):245-91. · 14.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy as compensation for high age-related decline of DHEA and DHEA sulfate production is a matter of intense investigation, since many beneficial effects have been proven, or are suggested and expected. Therefore, DHEA abuse by athletes has been considered by the International Olympic Committee, which banned the substance recently. As DHEA for oral supplementation is easily available, we decided to investigate the effect on the urinary androgen profile of administration along this route of a single substitution dose of 50 mg. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring demonstrated that the drug was readily absorbed with 50 to 75% recovery of dosing after 24 h, and with glucuro- and sulfoconjugates of DHEA, androsterone, and etiocholanolone as the most abundant metabolites. In agreement with reported data found in blood, conversion of exogenous DHEA to the principal biologically active androgen, testosterone, was low but proven to be real by the administration of deuterium-labeled DHEA and the subsequent identification and quantification of deuterium-labeled testosterone. A concentration threshold of 300 micrograms/L of DHEA glucuronide is proposed for the screening of DHEA abuse in sport, but a single replacement dose can only be detected during 8 h. Such a short detection period is the consequence of considerable first-pass hepatic metabolism and also of the high interindividual variability of circulating and urinary DHEA and DHEA sulfate concentrations.Steroids 03/1998; 63(2):80-7. · 2.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The application of a comprehensive gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS)-based method for stable carbon isotopes of endogenous urinary steroids is presented. The key element in sample preparation is the consecutive cleanup with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) of underivatized and acetylated steroids, which allows the isolation of ten analytes (11beta-hydroxyandrosterone, 5alpha-androst-16-en-3beta-ol, pregnanediol, androsterone, etiocholanolone, testosterone, epitestosterone, 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol, 5beta-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol and dehydroepiandrosterone) from a single urine specimen. These steroids are of particular importance to doping controls as they enable the sensitive and retrospective detection of steroid abuse by athletes. Depending on the biological background, the determination limit for all steroids ranges from 5 to 10 ng/mL for a 10 mL specimen. The method is validated by means of linear mixing models for each steroid, which covers repeatability and reproducibility. Specificity was further demonstrated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for each analyte, and no influence of the sample preparation or the quantity of analyte on carbon isotope ratios was observed. In order to determine naturally occurring (13)C/(12)C ratios of all implemented steroids, a reference population of n = 61 subjects was measured to enable the calculation of reference limits for all relevant steroidal Delta values.Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry 08/2008; 22(14):2161-75. · 2.51 Impact Factor