Neural degeneration in the retina of the streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetes model.

Laboratory of Retinal Cell Biology, Keio University School of Medicine, 35 Shinanomachi, Tokyo 160-8582, Japan.
Experimental Diabetes Research (Impact Factor: 3.54). 01/2011; 2011:108328. DOI: 10.1155/2011/108328
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Diabetic retinopathy, a vision-threatening disease, has been regarded as a vascular disorder. However, impaired oscillatory potentials (OPs) in the electroretinogram (ERG) and visual dysfunction are recorded before severe vascular lesions appear. Here, we review the molecular mechanisms underlying the retinal neural degeneration observed in the streptozotocin-(STZ-) induced type 1 diabetes model. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) both cause OP impairment and reduced levels of synaptophysin, a synaptic vesicle protein for neurotransmitter release, most likely through excessive protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. ROS also decrease brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and inner retinal neuronal cells. The influence of both RAS and ROS on synaptophysin suggests that RAS-ROS crosstalk occurs in the diabetic retina. Therefore, suppressors of RAS or ROS, such as angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers or the antioxidant lutein, respectively, are potential candidates for neuroprotective and preventive therapies to improve the visual prognosis.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Retinal neurodegeneration is a key component of diabetic retinopathy (DR), although the detailed neuronal damage remains ill-defined. Recent evidence suggests that in addition to amacrine and ganglion cell, diabetes may also impact on other retinal neurons. In this study, we examined retinal degenerative changes in Ins2Akita diabetic mice. In scotopic electroretinograms (ERG), b-wave and oscillatory potentials were severely impaired in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. Despite no obvious pathology in fundoscopic examination, optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed a progressive thinning of the retina from 3 months onwards. Cone but not rod photoreceptor loss was observed in 3-month-old diabetic mice. Severe impairment of synaptic connectivity at the outer plexiform layer (OPL) was detected in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. Specifically, photoreceptor presynaptic ribbons were reduced by 25% and postsynaptic boutons by 70%, although the density of horizontal, rod- and cone-bipolar cells remained similar to non-diabetic controls. Significant reductions in GABAergic and glycinergic amacrine cells and Brn3a+ retinal ganglion cells were also observed in 9-month old Ins2Akita mice. In conclusion, the Ins2Akita mouse develops cone photoreceptor degeneration and the impairment of synaptic connectivity at the OPL, predominately resulting from the loss of postsynaptic terminal boutons. Our findings suggest that the Ins2Akita mouse is a good model to study diabetic retinal neuropathy.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(5):e97970. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Insulin receptor substrate-2 (Irs2) mediates peripheral insulin action and is essential for retinal health. Previous investigations have reported severe photoreceptor degeneration and abnormal visual function in Irs2-deficient mice. However, molecular changes in the Irs2-/- mouse retina have not been described. In this study, we examined retinal degenerative changes in neuronal and glial cells of adult (9- and 12-week old) Irs2-/- mice by immunohistochemistry. 9-week old Irs2-/- mice showed significant thinning of outer retinal layers, concomitant to Müller and microglial cell activation. Photoreceptor cells displayed different signs of degeneration, such as outer/inner segment atrophy, redistribution of rod- and cone-opsins and spatial disorganization of cone cells. This was accompanied by synaptic changes at the outer plexiform layer, including the retraction of rod-spherules, reduction of photoreceptor synaptic ribbons and synaptic remodeling in second order neurons (i.e. loss and sprouting of dendritic processes in rod bipolar and horizontal cells). By 12 weeks of age, the thickness of inner retinal layers was severely affected. Although inner plexiform layer stratification remained unchanged at this stage, rod bipolar cell axon terminals were significantly depleted. Significant loss of Brn3a+ retinal ganglion cells occurred in 12-week old Irs2-/- mice, in contrast to younger ages. Adult Irs2-/- mice showed clear hallmarks of neurodegeneration and disruption of the inner retina with increasing age. Pharmacological stimulation of Irs2 signaling pathway may provide additional neuroprotection in certain degenerative retinopathies.
    Experimental Eye Research 01/2014; · 3.02 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Diabetic retinopathy is the major ocular complication associated with diabetes, and represents the leading cause of legal blindness in the working-age population of developed countries. Although classically diagnosed based on abnormalities of the retinal microvasculature, diabetic retinopathy is now widely recognized as a neurovascular disease. While all patients with diabetes are at increased risk for eye disease including diabetic retinopathy, proactive measures, and timely intervention can prevent or delay subsequent vision loss. Systemic management of diabetes by combined control of glycemia, blood pressure, and serum lipid levels remains the most important method of preventing diabetic retinopathy onset and progression. Once detected, surgical and medical interventions including photocoagulation, vitrectomy, and intravitral drug injection can help preserve vision. However, the need for improved detection methods and therapies that will allow earlier diagnosis and treatment remains apparent. This review summarizes current techniques for the prevention and intervention for diabetic retinopathy, and examines ongoing developments in the search for new endpoints and therapies as they apply to preventing vision loss associated with diabetes.
    US ophthalmic review. 01/2014; 7(1):54-58.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jul 10, 2014