Identification of a Genomic Reservoir for New TRIM
Genes in Primate Genomes
Kyudong Han.¤, Dianne I. Lou., Sara L. Sawyer*
Section of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, United States of America
Tripartite Motif (TRIM) ubiquitin ligases act in the innate immune response against viruses. One of the best characterized
members of this family, TRIM5a, serves as a potent retroviral restriction factor with activity against HIV. Here, we
characterize what are likely to be the youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. For instance, we have identified 11 TRIM
genes that are specific to humans and African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and another 7 that are human-
specific. Many of these young genes have never been described, and their identification brings the total number of known
human TRIM genes to approximately 100. These genes were acquired through segmental duplications, most of which
originated from a single locus on chromosome 11. Another polymorphic duplication of this locus has resulted in these
genes being copy number variable within the human population, with a Han Chinese woman identified as having 12
additional copies of these TRIM genes compared to other individuals screened in this study. Recently, this locus was
annotated as one of 34 ‘‘hotspot’’ regions that are also copy number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus
macaques. Most of the young TRIM genes originating from this locus are expressed, spliced, and contain signatures of
positive natural selection in regions known to determine virus recognition in TRIM5a. However, we find that they do not
restrict the same retroviruses as TRIM5a, consistent with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that control
target specificity. We propose that this recombinationally volatile locus serves as a reservoir from which new TRIM genes
arise through segmental duplication, allowing primates to continually acquire new antiviral genes that can be selected to
target new and evolving pathogens.
Citation: Han K, Lou DI, Sawyer SL (2011) Identification of a Genomic Reservoir for New TRIM Genes in Primate Genomes. PLoS Genet 7(12): e1002388.
Editor: Michael Worobey, University of Arizona, United States of America
Received August 4, 2011; Accepted September 29, 2011; Published December 1, 2011
Copyright: ? 2011 Han et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted
use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Funding: This work was supported by grants (to SLS) R01-GM-093086 from the National Institutes of Health and 107447-45-RGNT from amfAR, The Foundation
for AIDS Research. SLS holds a Career Award in the Biomedical Sciences from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund and is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow in
Computational and Evolutionary Molecular Biology. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of
Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
* E-mail: email@example.com
¤ Current address: Department of Nanobiomedical Science, WCU Research Center, Dankook University, Cheonan, Republic of Korea
. These authors contributed equally to this work.
The TRIM protein family constitutes a newly appreciated
group of innate immune effectors involved in the response to viral
infection [1–3]. TRIM5a, one of the best studied members of this
family, is a pattern-recognition receptor for mammalian retrovi-
ruses including HIV [4,5]. TRIM5a assembles into a hexameric
lattice on the surface of retroviral cores as they enter the cytoplasm
of a newly infected cell . This interaction stimulates premature
capsid disassembly [7,8] and the formation of unanchored K63-
linked polyubiquitin chains that trigger the production of
chemokines and cytokines including interferon [4,9]. The TRIM5
genetic locus has profound penetrance in determining viral titers
in SIV (simian immunodeficiency virus) infected macaques .
TRIM5 also serves as a significant genetic barrier to the
transmission of retroviruses between primate species [5,10–13].
Other TRIM proteins have been linked to infection by different
families of viruses altogether. TRIM25 interacts with the influenza
protein NS1 [14,15] and also activates the inflammatory response
through the production of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin
chains . TRIM23 interacts with human cytomegalovirus ,
TRIM56 with pestivirus , while TRIM19/PML confers
resistance to a broad range of DNA and RNA viruses . In
fact, more than one third of the approximately 70 known human
TRIM genes have been shown to be transcriptionally upregulated
in response to interferons . Although the mechanistic details
behind how TRIM proteins perform their antiviral roles remain
elusive in most cases, their profound relevance to viral infection is
made clear by the many viral antagonists that have been shown to
target them. For example, influenza, herpes simplex virus-1,
human cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus are all known to encode
proteins that interact with, or alter the activity of, human TRIM
By definition, TRIM genes encode proteins with a conserved
domain order: a RING zinc-coordinating domain, one or two
zinc-coordinating B-boxes, followed by a coiled-coil domain
(Figure 1A) . These three domains constitute the ‘‘tripartite
motif’’ that gives this family its name. Most TRIM genes also
encode a variable C-terminal domain, and in many of them, this is
a B30.2 domain . The B30.2 is composed of a series of b-
strands folded into a globular b-sandwich structure . Different
metazoan genomes contain different complements of TRIM genes.
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For example, Drosophila melanogaster has seven TRIM genes and
Caenorhabditis elegans has eighteen . In a previous comparison of
the TRIM gene complements found in the human and mouse
genomes, most were found to be strict 1:1 orthologs . This
suggests that the majority of human TRIM genes are ancient,
having originated more than 90 million years ago when human
and mouse shared a last common ancestor. However, that study
identified one phylogenetic clade of TRIM genes specific to the
mouse genome, and two clades specific to the human genome.
The clade of TRIM genes specific to the mouse genome (TRIM12/
TRIM30 and related genes) was subsequently shown to be an
expanded set of TRIM5 paralogs . Based on this, we wished to
describe the two phylogenetic clades of TRIM genes (TRIM50/73/
74 and TRIM43/48/49/64) which are specific to the human
genome (Figure 1B). We also wished to determine whether these
genes have been maintained by neutral drift or by selection,
potentially imposed by evolutionarily recent viral infections.
In the process of characterizing these young human TRIM
genes, we identified many additional, previously unidentified
human TRIM genes to which they are closely related, bringing the
total number of known human TRIM genes to approximately 100.
We show that these novel genes have arisen from recent, and in
some cases even human-specific, segmental duplication events.
Specifically, we find that one locus on chromosome 11, containing
nine tandemly situated TRIM genes, has spawned at least two
separate segmental duplications of itself during the evolution of
great apes, as well as having produced at least one other segmental
duplication that is still polymorphic in the human population. This
locus is therefore evolutionarily dynamic as well as copy number
variable within the human population. In a fascinating example of
trans-species copy number variation, this locus was recently
annotated as one of 34 ‘‘hotspot’’ regions that are also copy
number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus
macaques . Trans-species copy number variation remains
largely unstudied, and the evolutionary forces behind it remain
unknown . We propose that this locus is selected to remain
recombinationally volatile so that it can serve as a reservoir from
which new primate TRIM genes constantly arise. Theoretically,
increased gene dosage of innate immunity genes, conveyed by
increased copy number, could in itself provide protection against
viral infection and disease progression. However, many of these
genes are evolving under positive selection like other primate genes
known to encode antiviral molecules [26–35]. Therefore, these
duplicated genes also appear to be rapidly diversifying in function,
possibly to expand the spectrum of antiviral affinities in response
to new and evolving viruses.
Young TRIM genes in the human genome
In a previous comparison of the TRIM genes found in the
mouse and human genomes, several human-specific genes were
noted (Figure 1B) . Although these genes could have arisen
anytime during the last 90 million years since human and mouse
last shared a common ancestor, we were interested to know
whether any of them have arisen during Catarrhini speciation
(Figure 1C). This group constitutes our closest evolutionary kin,
primates that have most likely faced pathogens similar to those
that humans encounter. To address the evolutionary origins of
these human-specific TRIM genes, we took advantage of the
genome projects of several Catarrhini species, including chimpanzee
and orangutan (both great apes), human, and rhesus macaque (an
Old World monkey).
The first clade of human TRIM genes absent in the mouse
genome contains TRIM50, TRIM73, and TRIM74 (Figure 1B). To
investigate when these genes arose, orthologous sequences were
identified in the other Catarrhini genomes and a phylogeny was
constructed (Figure 1D). The most closely related human outgroup
sequence, TRIM72, was also included. TRIM72 forms a clear
orthogroup containing one gene from each species, with all nodes
being consistent with speciation events (boxed in green). However,
the TRIM50/TRIM73/TRIM74 clade has been more dynamic
(boxed in yellow). This branching pattern is consistent with an
ancestral TRIM50 that experienced two duplication events, each
indicated by a star on the phylogeny. The first duplication, giving
rise to TRIM73, occurred after the split between great apes and
Old World monkeys, but before our last common ancestor with
orangutan. It involved only the exons encoding the first three
protein domains. The second duplication event occurred in the
human lineage, less than 7 million years ago, giving rise to
TRIM74. Consistent with two duplication events, TRIM50,
TRIM73, and TRIM74 reside near each other on three segmental
duplications on human chromosome 7 . Spliced transcripts
have been identified for all three genes, and while TRIM50 has
been demonstrated to act as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, the biological
functions of TRIM73 and TRIM74 remain uncharacterized .
Thus, this small TRIM clade has gained gene copies though
segmental duplications that have occurred during recent primate
evolution. One gene, TRIM74, is even specific to humans.
The second clade of human TRIM genes absent in the mouse
genome contains TRIM43, TRIM48, TRIM49, and TRIM64
(Figure 1B). Using reciprocal best hit analysis, we failed to detect
strict 1:1 orthologs between human and the other primates being
analyzed. In fact, reciprocal searches of the human genome with
primate orthologs continually returned large numbers of mostly
un-annotated human genes. In all, we identified a group of 31
human TRIM genes that form a single monophyletic clade to the
exclusion of all other TRIM genes in the human genome
(Figure 2A). The clade includes seven TRIM genes previously
assigned standard TRIM names (including the four used as queries,
bold type) and 24 uncharacterized paralogs. Uncharacterized
genes were given temporary names reflecting their phylogenetic
subclade (i.e. A1 and A2 are two genes in the ‘A’ subclade shown
in Figure 2A), but actual locus identifiers for each gene are given in
Table 1. Of these 31 genes, 20 have full-length open reading
frames that are predicted to encode tripartite motifs either with or
without a C-terminal B30.2 domain (Figures S1, S2). Using RT-
PCR on testes mRNA, we were able to identify processed
A fundamental question in biology is how the immune
system is able to inactivate the enormous number of
pathogens that it faces. The vast majority of pathogens are
quickly neutralized by the innate immune system, a large
network of defenses to which approximately 1/30 of the
human genome is devoted. Because pathogens are always
evolving, these innate immunity genes must be able to
acquire new specificities. Here we illustrate a novel
mechanism of evolution that has been employed by the
large family of TRIM innate immunity genes. We have
found a cluster of tandemly arranged TRIM genes on
chromosome 11 that serves as a ‘‘reservoir’’ from which
new TRIM genes constantly arise. We show that this gene
cluster is prone to spawning duplications of itself, allowing
primate genomes to continually acquire new TRIM gene
copies that can presumably be selected to combat present
and new pathogens.
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transcripts for 11 of these 20 full-length genes, and when
combined with cDNA reads available in Genbank, 14 out of 20
genes have evidence for expression and splicing (Figure S2). Thus,
we have identified a large set of previously undiscovered human
TRIM genes, most of which appear to have protein coding
The 31 human TRIM genes in this clade are located at three
genomic loci, one near the centromere of chromosome 2, one
spanning the centromere of chromosome 11, and one on the arm
of chromosome 11 at 11q14.3 (Figure 2B). When the genes in this
schematic were color-coded to reflect the subclades in Figure 2A, it
became clear that they arose through a series of segmental
duplications. For example, the cluster of TRIM genes located on
the chromosome 11 arm contains a mirror-image tandem
inversion of 7 TRIM genes (denoted by two orange bars in
Figure 2B). A second duplication event is evident in the region
directly adjacent to the chromosome 11 centromere, where a
stretch of 6 TRIM genes appears to be an inverted copy of part of
the sequence located on the chromosome 11 arm (denoted by
green bars in Figure 2B). The genes located near the chromosome
2 centromere cluster phylogenetically with those found on
chromosome 11, suggesting that this may be yet another segmental
copy, although the gene order is sufficiently degraded that we
cannot draw any clear conclusions.
For discussion purposes, we denote the regions containing these
apparent duplications on chromosome 11 as segment 1, segment
2, and segment 3, as illustrated in Figure 3. The duplicated
chromosomal regions bearing these three segments are large, but
we have focused only on the portion that contains TRIM genes. A
careful inspection of the chimpanzee, orangutan, and rhesus
macaque genomes in these regions was then performed (Figure 3).
Segment 1 is found in all of these primate genomes, while segment
2 is found in the chimpanzee and human genomes only. In support
of the young age of segment 2, segments 1 and 2 in the human
genome are 96% identical along their length (calculated for 302
kilobase; Table S1). The identification of segment 2 in the
genomes of orangutan and rhesus macaque is somewhat
complicated by a large chromosomal inversion that has been
reported in the region of the chromosome 11 centromere, which
arose in the common ancestor of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla
. However, this segmental duplication has been previously
analyzed by FISH, using BAC-derived probes that anneal in both
Figure 1. TRIM73 and TRIM74 arose in our recent primate ancestors. (A) A generic schematic of a TRIM protein is shown. There may be one or
two B-boxes (yellow), and the final domain is variable although commonly a B30.2 domain. (B) An illustration summarizing the results of a previous
analysis of human (h) and mouse (m) TRIM genes . Most TRIM genes have strict 1:1 orthologs between the two species, as illustrated by the pairs in
gray boxes. Two clades of human-expanded TRIM genes were also noted (orange boxes). (C) The relationships of the species discussed in this study
are shown, along with approximate dates of divergence [78,79]. (D) A cladogram illustrates the relationship of TRIM72/TRIM50/TRIM73/TRIM74
homologs present in the genomes of human, chimpanzee, orangutan, rhesus macaque, and mouse. The domain structure of the proteins encoded by
these genes is indicated (R-B-CC is the tripartite motif discussed in the text). The asterisk (*) denotes orangutan TRIM73, which is an un-annotated
gene located on an unassembled contig in the ponAbe2 genome assembly (7_random; positions 15,637,224–15,648,145). The tree was made from
approximately 7,000 aligned bases in the R-B-CC region of these genes (introns and exons). Bootstrap values are shown for both neighbor joining and
maximum likelihood methods (NJ/ML). A maximum parsimony tree was also constructed (not shown), and all nodes are supported by 88% or greater
of bootstrap replicates regardless of the method used.
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Figure 2. A dynamic clade of TRIM genes in the human genome. (A) 31 human paralogs were identified that group into a single phylogenetic
clade. Seven of them have already been annotated with standard TRIM genes names (TRIM48, TRIM51, TRIM77, TRIM49, TRIM53, TRIM64, and TRIM43),
including the four genes that were originally being investigated here (bold type). The rest are predicted genes that have been given temporary
names reflecting their phylogenetic subclades (i.e. ‘‘A1’’). Subclades of genes are color-coded for naming purposes. Pink boxes indicate TRIM genes
located on chromosome 2, all other genes are on chromosome 11. The neighbor joining tree was based on an alignment of the predicted coding
regions. Bootstrap values are shown for both neighbor joining and maximum likelihood methods (NJ/ML). Nodes are collapsed where support by
both methods is ,75%. The two methods yield different branching orders in only one case, in the B subclade at the node indicated (‘). (B) The
genomic positions of these 31 TRIM genes are illustrated, according to the hg19 human genome assembly. Pentagons represent TRIM genes, with
strand orientation designated by the direction of the symbol. The color of the gene symbol reflects the phylogenetic subclade to which the gene
belongs (according to the tree in panel A). Green and yellow bars indicate two apparent inverted segmental duplication events. The segmental
duplication at the chromosome 11 centromere actually spans the centromere , and is therefore likely to be substantially longer than the 310
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segment 1 and segment 2 . In that study, all primate species
investigated showed a hybridization signal on the chromosome 11
arm at the location of segment 1. A second hybridization signal at
the chromosome 11 centromere (segment 2) was observed in the
genomes of human, chimpanzee, and gorilla, but not of
orangutan, rhesus macaque, or any other primate tested,
congruent with our conclusions made through comparative
genomics. Therefore, segment 2 is a segmental duplication of
segment 1 that is specific to humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and
presumably the final species of this monophyletic clade of African
apes, bonobos. This is in agreement with a previous age estimate
of 14 million years, based on sequence divergence, for the
segmental duplication containing segment 2 .
Interestingly, segment 3 is found only in the human genome
(Figure 3). The very recent acquisition of this segment as another
copy of segment 1 is supported by the observation that segments 1
and 3 are 99.6% identical along their length (calculated for 170
kilobase; Table S1). In intra-chromosomal comparisons of all
segmental duplications on chromosome 11, only 0.2 MB was
found to have this level of identity , consistent with segment 3
being one of the newest segmental duplications on the entire
chromosome. It is curious to note that genes A1 and A2, located in
tail-to-tail fashion, are 100% identical along their length (over 6
kilobase) in the human genome, but only 96–98% identical in the
genomes of orangutan or chimpanzee (Figure 3). A gene
conversion event between A1 and A2 in the human genome
may have accompanied or seeded the tandem inversion of
segment 1 to create segment 3.
In summary, we have identified species- and human-specific
TRIM genes on chromosome 11. The chromosomal region
bearing segment 1 has been highly dynamic during the evolution
of humans and African apes, seeding at least 2 segmental
duplications in the last 18 million years since their last common
ancestor with orangutan. There appears to be a gross dichotomy
in the timing of TRIM gene acquisition by the human genome
because, while the majority of human TRIM genes are ancient and
arose .90 million years ago, the rest of them (approximately 20%
of the TRIM genes in our genome) have arisen in very recent time,
during the evolution of the great apes.
Copy number variation
Because the locus containing segment 1 has spawned multiple
segmental duplications in recent primate history, we wished to
determine whether there are also newer segmental duplications of
this region that might be polymorphic in the human population.
Genomic regions containing polymorphic segmental duplications
or deletions greater than 1 kilobase in size are called ‘copy number
variable’ (CNV) regions . To characterize the population
genetics of this locus, we employed the multiplex ligation-
dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay . This is a
PCR-based assay that utilizes a fragment analyzer to quantify the
amount of product generated from different target regions in a
genome (Figure 4A). Eighteen probe pairs were designed to tile
across the length of segment 1 (Figure 4B and Table S4). Each
probe in each pair anneals to 23–63 bases of genomic DNA, and is
a perfect match to a target sequence in segment 1. Because of the
high degree of similarity between segment 1 and segment 3, probes
will also anneal to the cognate locus in segment 3 with perfect
complementarily. However, probe pairs were carefully situated
such that they have multiple mismatches to the corresponding
sequence in segment 2, or to sequence anywhere else in the human
genome (see materials and methods). Thus, each probe is expected
to have four binding sites in a diploid genome because there will be
two copies of each segment 1 and segment 3 target. The one
exception is the probe pair ‘‘M-uniq,’’ which sits in a unique
stretch of sequence between segments 1 and 3 and will have only
two binding sites in a diploid genome. Control probe pairs that
recognize standard single-copy genes distributed throughout the
genome were also included (see materials and methods). Initially,
50 genomic DNA samples from individuals from around the world
were analyzed. For each probe pair, the quantity of products
produced from each sample was normalized to the quantity
produced from a reference genome, as is standard for this assay. As
the reference, we used the genome of a Caucasian male from Utah
(NA10851) that has been previously used as the reference genome
in several studies of CNV regions [40,42–44].
The normalized fragment values for 12 representative genomes
are graphed in Figure 4C, and values for all 50 surveyed genomes
are presented in Table S5. We identified only one CNV, in the
Table 1. Names and Refseq numbers for TRIM genes
described in this study.
Gene Name(s) Previously
Assigned to this LocusRefSeq Record
C6 TRIM51/SPRYD5 NM_032681
D2 TRIM53 NR_028346
F1 TRIM49 NM_020358
G1 TRIM77 NM_001146162
H2 TRIM43 NM_138800
B3 (pseudo)LOC727828 NG_028916.1
C4 (pseudo) TRIM49B NG_028915.1
C7 (pseudo) LOC643126NG_028919.1
E1 (pseudo) LOC642414NG_028920.1
E2 (pseudo)LOC642579 NG_028913.1
E3 (pseudo)LOC100129108 NG_028914.1
H3 (pseudo)LOC643445 NG_028773.1
The table shows information on how to retrieve DNA sequence for the genes
discussed in this study. Genes towards the bottom of the table are predicted
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genome of a Han Chinese female (NA18573). In this individual,
the 16 probe pairs spanning from GAP1-1 to M-uniq all yielded
approximately 1.5 times the quantity of fragments as the reference
genome (average enhancement across all 16 probe pairs=1.6).
This was verified in eight independent experiments (not shown).
Therefore, this Han Chinese individual has two additional binding
sites for each of these probe pairs, and one additional binding site
for the M-uniq probe pair. This pattern is consistent with the
segmental duplication scenario diagrammed in Figure 4D. A signal
at this locus was previously detected in this same individual as part
of a whole-genome array-based study that identified 1,447 human
CNV regions . Thus, we have identified a human individual of
Chinese decent that has 43 TRIM genes belonging to this dynamic
phylogenetic group instead of the 31 TRIM genes which most
human individuals have.
Based on this finding, we then screened 22 additional Han
Chinese samples, but did not find another instance of this
segmental duplication (Table S5). In all, 72 human genomes were
analyzed by MLPA (human samples are listed in Table S6). The
polymorphism thus seems to be rare, as it was detected in only 1/
72 human individuals. However, CNVs have also been detected at
this locus, using array-based platforms, in the genomes of several
other Asians, including 2 Japanese, 2 Koreans, and 1 additional
Chinese individual (Figure S5) [40,42,44]. There is one report of a
CNV at this locus in the genome of a Yoruban from Africa .
Perhaps most interestingly of all, the region containing segment 1
is also copy number variable in chimpanzees and rhesus macaques
. In summary, the region containing segment 1 has been
highly dynamic both during primate speciation, and also in
current human and primate populations.
Positive selection of young TRIM genes
All of the findings described so far can potentially be explained
as random events occurring in a dynamic genome. As segmental
duplications arise, they may go to fixation through neutral drift
even if there is no selection acting for or against them. A hallmark
of genes that are being retained by neutral drift is that they
accumulate equal rates of non-synonymous and synonymous
mutations. Such genes have a characteristic signature of dN/
dS=1, where dN is the number of non-synonymous mutations per
non-synonymous site, and dS is the number of synonymous
mutations per synonymous site. In contrast, most functional genes
accumulate non-synonymous mutations at a rate far slower than
synonymous mutations (dN/dS,,1) due to the evolutionary
constraint at play . A third mode of evolution, recurrent
positive selection, has influenced several TRIM genes in primate
genomes, including Pyrin/TRIM20 , TRIM5 [28,32], and
TRIM22 . Genes or gene regions subject to such a selective
regime accumulate a characteristic signature of dN/dS.1 .
We analyzed the evolutionary pressures that have shaped these
young TRIM genes at the sequence level in order to determine
whether they have been neutrally or selectively retained. Usually,
evolutionary datasets of orthologous sequences are used for such
analyses, but because these genes are so new and dynamic, deep
species sets of strictly orthologous sequences cannot be easily
obtained. Instead, we looked at the patterns of nucleotide
substitution that have occurred during the diversification of these
genes by comparing human paralogs, all of which can be traced to
a common ancestral gene (asterisk in Figure 2A). Of the 31 TRIM
genes in the dynamic clade being investigated, 15 are predicted to
encode proteins with the full TRIM-B30.2 structure (Figure S2).
However, of these, two very recently diverged gene pairs (A1/A2
and C1/C2) are still identical along the length of their coding
sequence (Table S2), leaving 13 unique sequences which can be
Importantly, analysis of sequence evolution requires an accurate
phylogenetic representation of the genes being analyzed . One
problem with understanding the phylogenetic relationship of
Figure 3. Primate comparative genomics reveals 11 African ape-specific and 6 human-specific TRIM genes. The chromosome 11 TRIM
genes are diagrammed as they occur in the latest versions of four available primate genome projects. The dashed-empty pentagons represent genes
that are presumed to be present, but could not be identified due to large regions of poor sequence quality in several of the genome projects. The
dashed lines spanning the centromere in the orangutan and rhesus macaque genomes denote sequence that is not syntenic between genomes, due
to a large rearrangement that has been described . On the right-hand end of the diagrams, a 1 megabase block of synteny (grey bar) was
identified that sits adjacent to segment 1 or segment 3 in all four genomes.
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Figure 4. TRIM genes in segments 1 and 3 are copy number variable. (A) The schematic illustrates the Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe
Amplification (MLPA) assay. This assay utilizes pairs of probes designed to sit directly adjacent to one another at a particular genomic region. When
the two probes anneal to the correct target region on denatured genomic DNA, the addition of a ligase results in their joining into a single, larger
probe. Universal primer sites (black bars) at each end allow amplification of fragments from ligated pairs. Each probe pair yields a PCR product of
unique length due to a ‘‘stuffer sequence’’ (orange) that is placed internally to one of the universal primer binding sites. The universal PCR primers are
labeled with a fluorescent dye, and the quantity of each uniquely-sized fragment produced is measured with a fragment analyzer. (B) In this panel,
ligated probe pairs are now illustrated with a single green bar. Eighteen probe pairs were designed to span segment 1, and are also a perfect match
to their target sequence in segment 3. Thus, each is expected to anneal four times in a diploid genome. The one exception is the probe ‘‘M-uniq’’
which sits in a unique region between the segmental duplications. (C) The results of the MLPA assay are shown for 12 geographically diverse human
samples. For each individual, the fragment intensity produced from each probe pair was normalized to the intensity produced by the Utah reference
sample (NA10851). Control probes recognize single copy genes at the chromosomal locations indicated along the X-axis. For this reason, they yield
the same quantity of fragments in experimental and reference genomes (all values hover between 0.65 and 1.35, the cut-offs for deletion and
duplication). This is also true for the experimental probes. The one exception is in the genome of a Han Chinese sample (NA18573), where 16
adjacent experimental probe pairs (GAP1-1 through M-uniq) all yielded a quantity of fragments averaging 1.66 greater than the reference Utah
genome. In all, 72 geographically-diverse human samples were assayed by MLPA, and a table of full results can be found in Table S5. (D) The MLPA
results are consistent with a heterozygous duplication of most of the segment 1 – segment 3 locus.
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paralogs from a single genome is the fact that gene conversion may
have occurred. To detect phylogenetic incongruencies in our
alignment, indicative of such events, we used the GARD program
 as described in the materials and methods. Only one
phylogenetic breakpoint was identified (p,0.05), located between
the RING and B-box2 encoding domains of the first protein-
coding exon (Figure 5A). The alignment of the 13 TRIM genes was
subsequently divided at this point and the trees produced by each
half are shown in Figure 5C. Only two branches differ between the
trees (highlighted in red), suggesting that gene conversion has not
been extensive. The tree for each half is highly supported,
regardless of the phylogenetic method utilized (Figure 5C), or
whether just sites at the third positions of codons are utilized (data
not shown). With these trees, each half of the multiple alignment
was analyzed separately using the codeml package in PAML (see
materials and methods). We analyzed each half of the alignment
separately, under variable models of selection and codon usage
(Table S3). All models yielded strong support for positive selection
acting on both halves of the gene (p,0.05). Each of the two trees
has one poorly supported node (highlighted in green; Figure 5C).
We confirmed that support for positive selection remains strong
when each of these nodes is collapsed (p,0.05; Table S3).
Therefore, there is convincing evidence that these new TRIM
genes have not been retained by neutral drift alone.
dN/dS values were calculated for each branch on the two trees.
On these trees, there are many branches where dN/dS.1 (text
highlighted red; Figure 5C). In fact, the dN/dS values along some
of the gene lineages are remarkable. For example, there have been
17 non-synonymous and 0 synonymous mutations that have
accumulated during the divergence of the B5 gene (6 non-
synonymous in the first half and 11 in the second half). The
identical genes C1 and C2 have accumulated 25 non-synonymous
changes and 0 synonymous changes since they shared a last
common ancestor with the other genes of the ‘C’ clade, a
stunningly intense episode of positive selection. Collapsing of the
poorly supported node in each tree only marginally affects the
results (Figure S4). Such extreme evolutionary patterns are
unusual, but have been documented previously in other viral
restriction factors due to the intense evolutionary arms races in
which these genes are engaged [26,28,33,34,50].
These analyses can identify specific codon positions, and
corresponding amino acid residues, that have repeatedly been
subject to positive natural selection. Ten rapidly evolving codons
were identified (Table S3), as illustrated with tick marks on the
protein schematic in Figure 5A. Five of these fall in or near the
RING domain (residues F48, V50, E54, E60, H69 in TRIM49/F1
coordinates), three in the coiled-coil domain (R166, C167, R222),
and two in the B30.2 domain (Y320, A323).
Using secondary structure prediction and alignments to other
TRIM proteins, we determined that rapidly evolving residues
Y320 and A323 fall in a small loop (11–16 aa long) that lies
between the second and third b-strands of the B30.2 domain
(Figure S3). This surface-exposed ‘‘variable loop 1’’ (Figure 5B) has
been rather well characterized, at least in the case of TRIM5a. In
this protein, this loop is known to be a major determinant of
recognition for retroviral capsids, and presumably constitutes the
major binding interface with retroviruses. Sequence variation in
this loop of TRIM5a accounts largely for the species-specific viral
restriction patterns observed in various primate and mammalian
species [28,51–53]. It is hypothesized that the TRIM5 gene has
been engaged in an arms race with retroviruses throughout the
diversification of mammals, and that natural selection has driven
rapid sequence evolution of this loop for improved recognition of
constantly changing retroviruses [47,54]. Accordingly, there are
multiple sites of positive selection in the variable loop 1 region of
TRIM5a from primates , cows , and rabbits and hares
, all of which restrict mammalian retroviruses. It is intriguing
that the young TRIM genes identified here should have two
codons evolving under positive selection in the B30.2 domain, with
both of them falling in this small surface loop known to interact
with retroviral capsids.
Three rapidly evolving residues were also identified in the
coiled-coil domain (Figure 5A). In TRIM5a, the coiled-coil
domain is the second domain that participates in retroviral target
specificity [51,56]. The rapidly evolving residues identified here
are in regions shown to be critical in defining virus-specificity in
TRIM5a , and known to contain codons evolving under
positive selection in the TRIM5 gene (Figure S3). In summary,
positive selection has acted on these young TRIM genes in regions
analogous to the major determinants of retroviral specificity in
TRIM5a, suggesting that the novel genes could be retroviral
Based on the evolutionary signatures observed, we next tested
whether these genes might encode retroviral restriction factors. We
chose some of the genes with the highest branch-specific dN/dS
values for functional testing, ones which could also be amplified in
their complete form from human mRNA samples. These
candidates (A1, B1, B5, F1/TRIM49, F2, and F3) are indicated
with stars in Figure 5C. Except for F1/TRIM49, none of these
genes have ever been previously studied. We tested the ability of
these genes to restrict cellular entry of three different mammalian
retroviruses which are known to be restricted by human and/or
rhesus macaque TRIM5a: feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV),
HIV, and murine leukemia virus (MLV). Interestingly, the young
human TRIM genes did not restrict these retroviruses (Figure S6).
If these genes do have anti-retroviral activity, these data suggest
that their specificity is different than that of TRIM5a, consistent
with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that
control target specificity. Perhaps these TRIM genes were honed to
target retroviruses that are now extinct [57,58]. Alternately, these
TRIM genes may target other virus families altogether. For
instance, TRIM22 has experienced positive selection in these same
retroviral targeting motifs, and while this gene may be relevant to
retroviral infection , it also has activity against hepatitis B 
and picornaviruses .
Here we identify and characterize what are likely to be the
youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. While the ,100
human TRIM genes are for the most part ancient, we now show
that a substantial number of them (approximately 20%, not
counting additional TRIM gene copies that are polymorphic in the
human population) have arisen in recent evolutionary time, during
the speciation of the great apes. Many of these genes have full-
length open reading frames and produce spliced transcripts.
Almost all have arisen from segmental duplications that can be
traced to a single locus on the arm of chromosome 11. We propose
that the segment 1 region on the arm of chromosome 11 is a
TRIM gene ‘‘factory,’’ producing copies of the genes that it
contains by spawning segmental duplications around the genome.
Increased dosage of these genes may, in itself, be adaptive.
Further, depending on the chromosomal context of new segmental
duplications, the genes that they contain may be expressed in
different tissues or at different developmental stages. However, we
also find that positive selection is rapidly shaping the sequence of
these genes, such that new copies may quickly become specialized
for new functions or specificities. It will be important to determine
A Genomic Reservoir for TRIM Genes
PLoS Genetics | www.plosgenetics.org 8December 2011 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e1002388
what role, if any, these young TRIM genes play in innate
immunity, particularly because these genes are copy number
variable in human and primate populations.
Several insights into the evolutionary dynamics of large gene
families can be gained from this study. TRIM genes are found
throughout the human genome and the segmental duplications
described here may illustrate one mechanism by which this family
has expanded over time. Because all gene duplicates start out as
polymorphisms segregating in populations, the observed copy
number variation suggests that this gene family is still growing.
Several lines of evidence support the idea that the fixation of new
TRIM paralogs in the human genome has, at least in part, been an
adaptive rather than a neutral process. First, TRIM5 ,
TRIM22 , Pyrin/TRIM20 , and many of the TRIM genes
described herein, have all evolved under positive selection,
accumulating unexpectedly high numbers of non-synonymous
mutations. New genes are especially prone to positive selection,
probably because redundant gene copies provide templates for the
evolution of new functions [24,62]. Second, some TRIM genes
have been highly dynamic in terms of species-specific gene gain
and loss during mammalian evolution. For instance, cows and
rodents possess independent, species-specific expansions of tan-
demly situated TRIM5 paralogs, while dogs and cats have
independently lost the function of this gene [27,54,63]. Likewise,
the TRIM genes in segment 1 on chromosome 11 are also highly
dynamic, having spawned at least two segmental duplications in
African apes and another that is now polymorphic in the human
population. Immunity genes are, in general, overrepresented
Figure 5. Positive selection has shaped the sequence of the novel TRIM genes on chromosomes 2 and 11. (A) A schematic where tick
marks represent the 10 residue positions found to be evolving under positive selection in the novel TRIMs. Also indicated is a phylogenetic
breakpoint which was detected in the sequence alignment, located between the RING and B-box 2 domains (after base position 237 in the coding
sequence). (B) The crystal structure (PDB 3KB5) of a TRIM B30.2 domain is shown , with the b2-b3 loop highlighted in red. (C) The phylogenetic
trees of the two halves of the alignment differ only in the placement of two branches (in red). Bootstrap support for each node is shown by both
neighbor joining and maximum likelihood (NJ/ML) methods. On each branch, the estimated value of dN/dS is given, followed by the number of non-
synonymous and synonymous mutations predicted to have occurred along that branch (N:S). dN/dS is indicated as infinity where dS=0. Text is
highlighted in red where dN/dS .1 (or, arbitrarily, where N:S$3:0 in cases where dS is zero). Genes A1 and A2, and genes C1 and C2, are identical
along the length of their coding sequence. Stars on the right indicate genes that were functionally tested in retroviral restriction assays. Finally, each
of the two trees has one poorly supported node (in green).
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amongst mammalian gene families that show rapid gene gain and
loss, suggesting that these events are often adaptive . Third,
the acquisition of the young TRIM genes has not come without a
cost to the human genome. Unequal crossing-over and aberrant
homologous recombination between the tandem segments that
contain TRIM50, TRIM73, and TRIM74 causes Williams-Beuren
syndrome in 1/7,500 to 1/25,000 newborns . This fitness
consequence might be expected to be offset by a fitness advantage,
otherwise these regions would be selectively lost from the genome.
Historically, studies of human genetic variation have focused
almost exclusively on single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)
differences between individuals. Recently, it has become apparent
that large DNA segments are also commonly polymorphic
between individuals, resulting from recent segmental duplications
and deletions. CNV regions can be associated with disease, usually
related to the altered gene dosage that they convey . Another
negative consequence of CNV duplications is that blocks of nearly
identical sequence interspersed in a genome can create a volatile
landscape for recombination. However, positive attributes can also
be imagined for CNV regions, such as benefits that might be
gained from increased dosage of certain genes. Such a fitness
advantage has been suggested for the salivary amylase gene
(AMY1), which is found in higher copy number in populations with
higher starch diets . Here we propose that CNV regions can
also be a positive, adaptive force in genomes by driving the
generation and diversification of gene families important to human
immunity. For all of these reasons, studies of CNV regions are
important for understanding individual disease susceptibility.
Materials and Methods
Gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis
Refseq annotated human coding sequences of genes of interest
were downloaded from Genbank. Analysis of human – chimpan-
zee – orangutan – rhesus macaque orthogroups was performed by
reciprocal-best hit analysis performed in the UCSC genome
database . Briefly, each human gene was used as a BLAT
query  against the genome projects of the other species
investigated. The top hits from these queries were then used to
reciprocally query the human genome. All related sequences were
then compiled and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. cDNA or
full-gene sequences were aligned using MUSCLE as implemented
in MEGA5 . Alternate trees (neighbor joining, maximum
likelihood, and maximum parsimony) were constructed within
MEGA, with gapped positions excluded. Tree nodes were
critically evaluated by performing 1,000 bootstrap replicates.
The physical locations of the TRIM genes in the human (hg19),
chimpanzee (panTro2), orangutan (ponAbe2), and rhesus ma-
caque (rheMac2) genome assemblies were determined by manual
inspection in the UCSC genome browser . It was not possible
to determine the structure of the chromosomal 11 loci in the
marmoset genome assembly (calJac3), due to poor sequence
Gene expression analysis
Primers were designed to recognize novel TRIM genes (primer
sequences are given in Table S7). Each primer set was designed to
span at least one intron so that products resulting from processed
transcripts could be differentiated from those potentially resulting
from contaminating genomic DNA. SuperScript first-strand
synthesis system for RT-PCR (Invitrogen) was used to synthesize
cDNA from human testis total RNA (Clontech, 636533). PCR
Supermix (Invitrogen) or Ex Taq polymerase (Takara) was used to
amplify from cDNA. Individual PCR amplicons were cloned into
vectors using the TOPO-TA Cloning kit (Invitrogen). For each
sample, at least ten different colonies were randomly selected and
were sequenced. These sequences have been submitted as records
to Genbank (JF968445-JF968463).
Characterizing patterns of molecular evolution
A sequence alignment was created from TRIM genes that have
a full-length open reading frame (RING through B30.2). The tree
length of this dataset is approximately 5 . First, this alignment
was checked for the signatures of gene conversion. If gene
conversion of one paralog by another has occurred along the
entire length of the two genes, this will not present a problem
because a gene phylogeny will correctly reflect the fact that these
two genes now have a very recent common ancestor and have
been diverging only since the gene conversion event (although the
record of previous evolutionary adaptations will have been erased
in the converted gene). Problems occur when a gene conversion
event has affected only part of a gene, as each gene half will then
have a different location on the phylogenetic tree and no single
tree will accurately represent the evolutionary history of the entire
gene. To detect such events, the alignment was checked for
phylogenetic incongruencies with the GARD program 
implemented in Datamonkey . Once the breakpoint had
been identified, the tree structure for each half of the alignment
was checked with multiple bootstrapping algorithms using
MEGA5 as described above. Using the two halves of the
alignment and the corresponding trees, maximum likelihood
analysis was performed with codeml in the PAML 3.14.1 software
package . The multiple alignments were fitted to the NSsites
models M1a, M7, M8a (null models) and M2a, M8 (positive
selection models). Simulations were run with alternate models of
codon frequencies (f3x4 and f61), and with multiple seed values
for dN/dS (v). Likelihood ratio tests were performed to assess
whether positive selection models provide a significantly better fit
to the data than null models. In situations where the null model
could be rejected (p,0.05), posterior probabilities were assigned
to individual codons belonging to the class of codons with dN/
dS.1 with the Naive Empirical Bayes (NEB) algorithm
implemented in codeml. The free ratio model (model 1, one
dN/dS per branch) was also run in codeml to assess branch-
specific values of dN/dS.
Generation of stable cell lines
HA-tagged versions of human and rhesus TRIM5 in the LPCX
retroviral vector were obtained from the National Institutes of
Health AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program. TRIM
A1, B1, F1, F2, and F3 open reading frames were amplified from
human cDNA using primers shown in Table S7. We were unable
to amplify B5 in its full length form, so in this case we fused the
B30.2 domain of this gene to the tripartite domains of rhesus
TRIM5. HA tags were fused to the C-terminus of each gene using
PCR and these products were cloned into the LPCX retroviral
vector (Clontech). Retroviruses containing these vectors were
packaged in 293T cells by co-transfecting them along with the
NB-MLV packing plasmid pCS2-mGP  and pC-VSV-G
(provided by Hyeryun Choe). Supernatants were collected and
used to infect CRFK cells purchased from American Type
Culture Collection (ATCC) and grown in DMEM supplemented
with 10% FBS. After 24 hours, media containing 8 mg/ml
puromycin was added to select for transduced cells. Expression
of TRIM proteins was detected by Western blot of 30 mg total
protein using an anti-HA antibody (3F10, Roche, catalog
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Viral entry assays
Viruses for single-cycle infection assays were packaged in 293T
cells by co-transfection of plasmids encoding viral proteins and
VSV-G, along with a transfer vector, as follows: N-MLV (pCIG3-
N , pC-VSV-G, pLXCG:GFP), HIV-1 (pMDLg/pRRE,
pRSV-Rev, pMD2.G, pRRLSIN.cPPT.PGK-GFP.WPRE; all
available on Addgene), FIV (pFP93 , pC-VSV-G, pGIN-
SIN:GFP ). After 48 hours, supernatant containing viruses was
harvested, filtered, and frozen. For infection assays, CRFK stable
cell lines were plated at a concentration of 56104cells/well in a
12-well plate and infected with N-MLV, FIV, or HIV-1 the
following day. Two days post-infection, cells were analyzed by flow
cytometry for expression of GFP.
Multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA)
We utilized the SALSA MLPA kit P200 Human DNA
reference-1 and associated protocol (MRC-Holland, Amsterdam,
The Netherlands). This kit includes the human control probes
utilized. Our custom probe set was designed to contain eighteen
pairs of MLPA probes spanning segment 1 (Table S4). These
probes also perfectly match paralogous regions in segment 3, due
to the fact that these segments are nearly identical, but are
designed to contain at least two mismatches to all other paralogous
sequences located on chromosomes 2 or 11 (or anywhere else in
the human genome, as determined by BLAT searching on the
UCSC human genome browser). Probes were positioned both in
genes (8 probe pairs) and in intergenic regions (10 probe pairs).
The average distance between probe pairs is 9304 bp. PCR
primers supplied with this kit were fluorescently labeled with FAM,
and FAM-labeled fragments obtained from each experiment were
analyzed with an Applied Biosystems 3730 DNA analyzer. Peak
spectra were checked for quality in two ways. First, the spectra
were analyzed with the ABI software Peak Scanner (v.1.0) to
evaluate the fragment size quality using a size standard that was
included during fragment analysis (500ROX, ABI). If the quality
flag indicated ‘‘pass,’’ the samples including their fragment size
information were exported as a combined table. Second, the
MRC-Holland software Coffalyzer (v.8) was used to evaluate the
signals of the control probes supplied with the MLPA kit. Controls
are designed to confirm sufficient amounts of template DNA and
completion of DNA denaturation and ligation steps. Finally,
GeneMarker (v.1.7) software was used to normalize and analyze
MLPA experiments that passed both of these quality control steps.
Advanced population normalization was used and MLPA analysis
settings were as follows: MLPA ratio (analysis method), adjustment
by control probes, and quantification by peak height. After
normalization of fragment data to the reference genome (sample
NA10851 from Utah), duplications and deletions were defined as
probes that gave a signal intensity of .1.35 (duplication) or ,0.65
(deletion) that of the reference genome. Because the samples
analyzed were a mixture of male and female samples, control
probes on the X and Y chromosomes were used to show that these
enrichment and depletion thresholds are robust in predicting gain
and loss of control targets located on sex chromosomes (Table S5).
Because false signals may be caused by unknown SNPs at the
target locus or elsewhere, signals of enrichment or depletion seen
only with a single probe pair were disregarded.
domains. Of the 31 human TRIM genes identified on chromosomes
11 and 2, eleven appear to have been pseudogenized based on the
Sequence alignments of the TRIM RING and B-box 2
acquisition of frame shifts or stop codons. The predicted RING and
B-box2 domains encoded by the other 20 genes are diagrammed
here. Bold characters highlight consensus motifs of the RING and
B-box 2 domains . All but one of the predicted RING domains,
that in G3, has retained the signature (C-x2-C-x11–16-C-x-H-x2-C-
x2-C-x7–74-C-x2-[C/D]) motif characteristic of the TRIM family
RING domain. The B-box 2 domain, defined by the signature (C-
is conserved in all but the C1 and C2 genes. Asterisks along the
bottom indicate positions of strict sequence conservation.
TRIM genes on chromosomes 2 and 11. (A) Of the 31 human TRIM
genes identified on chromosomes 11 and 2, eleven appear to have
been pseudogenized based on the acquisition of frame shifts or stop
codons. Predicted cDNA sequences for the remaining 20 were
translated into amino acid sequence, and the signature protein
domains of the TRIM family were identified and illustrated to scale
with domain diagrams. The TRIM RING and B-box domains are
defined in Figure S1. Coiled-coil and B30.2 domains were identified
with the secondary structure prediction program on the JPRED
server (http://www.compbio.dundee.ac.uk/;www-jpred/) . The
coiled-coil is easily identified as one long alpha helix, while the B30.2
domain is comprised of a string of 13 tandem beta strands .
Asterisks in the G3, C1, C2 diagrams indicate deviations from the
strict consensus sequences of the RING and B-box 2 domains (see
Figure S1). Next to each schematic, a star indicates that processed
mRNA transcripts for that gene have been reported, either in
Genbank (blackstars) or inourstudiesshowninpanel B (white stars).
(B) Primers were designed to amplify TRIM transcripts from cDNA
prepared from human testes. Universal primers were designed for
each of the phylogenetic subclades of TRIM genes discussed in the
paper. Primer sequences are reported in Table S7. Primers were
designed to span introns so that both expression and splicing could
be verified, but only small portions (245–1368 bp) were amplified,
resulting in fragment length differences seen in the gel. Because of
reactions amplified more than one TRIM paralog. For this reason, at
least ten different fragments from each PCR pool were cloned,
sequenced, and examined for diagnostic mutations that unambig-
uously distinguish each of these genes from the others. The genes
found tobe amplified ineachPCR pool arelisted above the gel, with
expressed pseudogenes indicated in parenthesis. In all, processed
transcripts were detected for 11 of the non-pseudogenized TRIM
genes (indicated with open stars in panel A).
Domain structures and expression evidence for novel
alignment of the first part of the B30.2 domain is shown. One
sequence is shown from each subclade of the novel TRIM genes
included in the evolutionary analysis. The positions of the two
residues under positive selection are highlighted in yellow. Because
the B30.2 is a motif where structure is more highly conserved than
sequence , the alignment was aided by predicted secondary
structural elements. Predicted beta strands are underlined and the
consensus locations of the beta strands (green boxes) are in
agreement with crystal structures of the B30.2 domain [82,83].
The ‘‘variable loop 1’’ region between beta strands 2 and 3 is
notoriously poorly conserved in both sequence and length
[28,82,84] and the exact alignment of residues in this region is
not possible to determine. Residues under positive selection have
previously been found in the variable loop 1 of TRIM5a and
TRIM22 [27,28], and these are indicated in yellow. (B) An
alignmentisshownofthe entire coiled-coildomain,with aminoacid
TRIM residues under positive selection. (A) An
A Genomic Reservoir for TRIM Genes
PLoS Genetics | www.plosgenetics.org 11December 2011 | Volume 7 | Issue 12 | e1002388
positions identified as evolving under positive selection highlighted
in yellow. Residues previously identified as subject to positive
selection in TRIM5a and TRIM22 are also highlighted in yellow
[27,28]. Pink balls indicate residues previously found to contribute
to retroviral target specificity in TRIM5a . Boxes show regions
of the coiled-coil that may be critical to retroviral targeting, based
on evolutionary and genetic signatures summarized here. In both
panels, asterisks mark perfectly conserved residues.
a full summary of free ratio results. All trees used in the
evolutionary analyses are shown. The sequence alignment was
divided at a phylogenetic breakpoint that was detected between
the RING and B-box 2 domains. The trees made from each half of
the alignment (tree 3 and tree 1) are shown. In each case, there
was one weakly supported node (green branch) that was collapsed
to yield tree 4 and tree 2. All evolutionary analyses were verified
using both trees, and the results of the PAML free ratio analysis
are shown here for all trees. The dN/dS value is shown along each
branch, along with the predicted number of non-synonymous and
synonymous changes (N:S) that occurred along each branch. Text
is in red where dN/dS .1 or, arbitrarily, where N:S$3:0 in cases
where dS=0. The NSsites models were also verified with all
possible trees, as shown in Table S3.
Phylogenetic trees used in PAML analyses, along with
of segments 1/3 (11q14.3). A schematic of the region of segment 1/
segment 3 is shown along the top, with information from three
structural variation data tracks from the UCSC genome database
aligned directly beneath. Information from the latter two tracks has
been re-drawnfor readability.The ‘‘RefSeq Genes’’trackshowsthat
some of these genes have been previously annotated, although in
some cases there is redundancy because the genes in each segment
are so similar in sequence. The ‘‘Segmental Dups’’ track shows that
the Eichler Lab has previously detected this tandem duplication
event. The ‘‘Database of Genomic Variants (DGV) Track’’ shows
major CNV events reported in this region. A key to each numbered
CNV event (ie ‘‘3862’’) is shown in the table at the bottom.
Summary of previously published CNVs in the region
viruses targeted by TRIM5a. (A) Western blot of whole cell lysates
from CRFK stable cell lines expressing the TRIM genes selected
for functional analyses. As a negative control, CRFK cell lines
were transduced with the empty LPCX vector. Stable cell lines
expressing human (Hs) and rhesus (Rh) TRIM5a were included as
controls. (B-D) Infection of stable cell lines with (B) HIV-1, (C)
FIV, or (D) N-MLV was assessed by GFP fluorescence using flow
cytometry, as each virus carries a GFP reporter gene. In all panels,
the asterisk (*) indicates that the B30.2 domain of B5 was fused to
the tripartite domains of rhesus TRIM5.
Novel TRIM proteins do not inhibit entry of three
chromosome 11. Each duplicated region was aligned using
Percent identity between segmental duplications on
BioEdit. The alignment was imported into DNASTAR’s MegA-
lign program in the Lasergene version 5.0 software package
(http://www.dnastar.com) and sequence identity was calculated.
(ORFs) for the 20 intact human genes identified on chromosomes
2 and 11. The fraction of base differences between each set of
sequences is shown. All positions containing gaps were eliminated.
Distances were calculated with MEGA5 .
Evolutionary divergence between open reading frames
Summary of codeml simulations conducted with
probe oligo and right probe oligo, respectively. Green and blue
letters indicate forward and reverse universal primer binding sites,
respectively. Lower case letters represent stuffer sequences that are
built into each probe pair so that it produces a PCR product of
MLPA probe sequences. LPO and RPO stand for left
MLPA ratios (normalized to Utah 10851) are shown for each
probe pair for each individual. Deletions and duplications are
indicated where ratios are ,0.65 (red highlight) and .1.35 (green
highlight), respectively. These cut-off ratios are commonly used (see
MLPA validation report (www.eurogentest.org)). Enrichments and
depletions specific to a single probe have been ignored.
Results of MLPA analysis for all 72 genomes surveyed.
All genomic DNA samples were obtained from Coriell except
Human individuals surveyed in the MLPA analysis.
amplification of TRIM transcripts from cDNA. Also shown are
primers used to amplify full-length genes for viral restriction
Primers used in this study. Primers are shown for the
We thank the UCSC genome browser team, and primate sequencing
consortiums, for the valuable resources that they have generated. We thank
Ann Demogines, Harmit Malik, Nick Meyerson, Paul Rowley, and Eric
Vallender for helpful comments and discussions. We thank Michael
Emerman, Jonathan Stoye, and Eric Poeschla for viral packaging reagents
and Heui-Soo Kim for genomic DNA.
Conceived and designed the experiments: KH DIL SLS. Performed the
experiments: KH DIL SLS. Analyzed the data: KH DIL SLS. Wrote the
paper: KH DIL SLS.
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