To determine the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This is a prospective cohort study of children ages 5 to 17 years in which we analyzed the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after mild TBI (mTBI; n = 402) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 60) compared with controls with arm injury (AI; n = 122).
The prevalence of headache 3 months after injury was significantly higher after mTBI than after AI overall (43% vs 26%, relative risk [RR]: 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-2.3]), in adolescents (13-17 years; 46% vs 25%, RR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]), and in girls (59% vs 24%, RR: 2.4 [95% CI: 1.4-4.2]). The prevalence of headache at 3 months was also higher after moderate/severe TBI than AI in younger children (5-12 years; 60% vs 27%; RR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.4]). Twelve months after injury, TBI was not associated with a significantly increased frequency of headache. However, girls with mTBI reported serious headache (≥ 5 of 10 pain scale rating) more often than controls (27% vs 10%, RR: 2.2 [95% CI: 0.9-5.6]).
Pediatric TBI is associated with headache. A substantial number of children suffer from headaches months after their head injury. The prevalence of headache during the year after injury is related to injury severity, time after injury, age, and gender. Girls and adolescents appear to be at highest risk of headache in the months after TBI.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common condition. Recent advances in this area have included the development of quality of care indicators for the rehabilitation of children with TBI, efforts to identify means to prognosticate regarding outcomes including results of biomarker and imaging assessments, innovations in rehabilitation techniques including the application of various technologies, and continuing delineation of long-term outcomes. Application of the quality of care indicators support that pediatric-specific rehabilitation units are more likely to meet the quality of care indicators than all age units or those that admit a small number of children with TBI. Some biomarkers are showing promise, particularly when considering peak concentration, but extra-cranial injury makes their use challenging. Long-term outcome studies report continuing impairment years after injury. Evidence is still limited and would benefit from the application of standard definitions and use of consistent outcome measures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract This study examined the outcome of 0- to 17-year-old children 36 months after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and ascertained if there was any improvement in function between 24 and 36 months. Controls were children treated in the emergency department for an arm injury. Functional outcome 36 months after injury was measured by the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL), the self-care and communication subscales of the Adaptive Behavior Assessment Scale-2nd edition (ABAS-II), and the Child and Adolescent Scale of Participation (CASP). At 36 months after TBI, those with moderate or severe TBI continued to have PedsQL scores that were 16.1 and 17.9 points, respectively, lower than at baseline, compared to the change seen among arm injury controls. Compared to the baseline assessment, children with moderate or severe TBI had significantly poorer functioning on the ABAS-II and poorer participation in activities (CASP). There was no significant improvement in any group on any outcomes between 24 and 36 months. Post-injury interventions that decrease the impact of these deficits on function and quality of life, as well as preventive interventions that reduce the likelihood of TBI, should be developed and tested.
Journal of neurotrauma 07/2012; 29(15):2499-504. DOI:10.1089/neu.2012.2434 · 3.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Symptom reports play a critical role in the assessment and management of concussions. Symptoms are often conceptualized as factors comprising several related symptoms (eg, somatic factor = headache, nausea, vomiting). Previous research examining the factor structure of the 22-item Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) has been limited to small samples and has not adequately evaluated factor loadings at both baseline and postconcussion for male and female athletes at the high school and collegiate levels.
To examine the factor structure of the 22-item PCSS in independent samples of high school and collegiate athletes reported at baseline and postconcussion, and to evaluate sex and age differences in the resulting baseline and postconcussion symptom factor scores.
Case series; Level of evidence, 4.
Exploratory factor analytic (EFA) methods were applied to 2 separate samples of athletes who completed the PCSS at baseline (n = 30,455) and 1 to 7 days after a sport-related concussion (n = 1438). The baseline sample (mean ± standard deviation) was 15.74 ± 1.78 years, with a range of 13 to 22 years, and the postconcussion sample was 17.14 ± 2.25 years, with a range of 13 to 24 years.
A 4-factor solution accounting for 49.1% of the variance at baseline included a cognitive-sensory, sleep-arousal, vestibular-somatic, and affective factor structure. A 4-factor solution that included cognitive-fatigue-migraine, affective, somatic, and sleep was revealed for the postconcussion EFA. High school athletes reported higher baseline levels of the cognitive-sensory and vestibular-somatic symptom factors and lower levels of the sleep-arousal factor than college athletes. Female participants reported higher symptoms on all postconcussion factors than male participants.
The current findings reveal different symptom factors at baseline and postinjury and several age and sex differences on the symptom factors. At postconcussion, symptoms aggregated into a global concussion factor including cognitive, fatigue, and migraine symptoms. Symptoms reported at baseline are not the same as those reported after injury. The presence of a global postconcussion symptom comprising the fatigue factor highlights the importance of physical and cognitive rest during the first week after a concussion. Although headache was the most commonly reported symptom, it was not the greatest contributor to the global postconcussion symptom factor.
The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2012; 40(10):2375-84. DOI:10.1177/0363546512455400 · 4.36 Impact Factor
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