Headache After Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: A Cohort Study
ABSTRACT To determine the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI).
This is a prospective cohort study of children ages 5 to 17 years in which we analyzed the prevalence of headache 3 and 12 months after mild TBI (mTBI; n = 402) and moderate/severe TBI (n = 60) compared with controls with arm injury (AI; n = 122).
The prevalence of headache 3 months after injury was significantly higher after mTBI than after AI overall (43% vs 26%, relative risk [RR]: 1.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-2.3]), in adolescents (13-17 years; 46% vs 25%, RR: 1.8 [95% CI: 1.1-3.1]), and in girls (59% vs 24%, RR: 2.4 [95% CI: 1.4-4.2]). The prevalence of headache at 3 months was also higher after moderate/severe TBI than AI in younger children (5-12 years; 60% vs 27%; RR: 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.4]). Twelve months after injury, TBI was not associated with a significantly increased frequency of headache. However, girls with mTBI reported serious headache (≥ 5 of 10 pain scale rating) more often than controls (27% vs 10%, RR: 2.2 [95% CI: 0.9-5.6]).
Pediatric TBI is associated with headache. A substantial number of children suffer from headaches months after their head injury. The prevalence of headache during the year after injury is related to injury severity, time after injury, age, and gender. Girls and adolescents appear to be at highest risk of headache in the months after TBI.
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ABSTRACT: Symptom reports play a critical role in the assessment and management of concussions. Symptoms are often conceptualized as factors comprising several related symptoms (eg, somatic factor = headache, nausea, vomiting). Previous research examining the factor structure of the 22-item Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) has been limited to small samples and has not adequately evaluated factor loadings at both baseline and postconcussion for male and female athletes at the high school and collegiate levels. To examine the factor structure of the 22-item PCSS in independent samples of high school and collegiate athletes reported at baseline and postconcussion, and to evaluate sex and age differences in the resulting baseline and postconcussion symptom factor scores. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Exploratory factor analytic (EFA) methods were applied to 2 separate samples of athletes who completed the PCSS at baseline (n = 30,455) and 1 to 7 days after a sport-related concussion (n = 1438). The baseline sample (mean ± standard deviation) was 15.74 ± 1.78 years, with a range of 13 to 22 years, and the postconcussion sample was 17.14 ± 2.25 years, with a range of 13 to 24 years. A 4-factor solution accounting for 49.1% of the variance at baseline included a cognitive-sensory, sleep-arousal, vestibular-somatic, and affective factor structure. A 4-factor solution that included cognitive-fatigue-migraine, affective, somatic, and sleep was revealed for the postconcussion EFA. High school athletes reported higher baseline levels of the cognitive-sensory and vestibular-somatic symptom factors and lower levels of the sleep-arousal factor than college athletes. Female participants reported higher symptoms on all postconcussion factors than male participants. The current findings reveal different symptom factors at baseline and postinjury and several age and sex differences on the symptom factors. At postconcussion, symptoms aggregated into a global concussion factor including cognitive, fatigue, and migraine symptoms. Symptoms reported at baseline are not the same as those reported after injury. The presence of a global postconcussion symptom comprising the fatigue factor highlights the importance of physical and cognitive rest during the first week after a concussion. Although headache was the most commonly reported symptom, it was not the greatest contributor to the global postconcussion symptom factor.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 08/2012; 40(10):2375-84. DOI:10.1177/0363546512455400 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than 3.8 million children sustain traumatic brain injuries annually. Treatment of posttraumatic headache (PTH) in the emergency department (ED) is variable, and benefits are unclear. The objective of the study is to determine if intravenous migraine therapy reduces pain scores in children with PTH and factors associated with improved response. This was a retrospective study of children, 8 to 21 years old, presenting to a tertiary pediatric ED with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and PTH from November 2009 to June 2013. Inclusion criteria were mTBI (defined by diagnosis codes) within 14 days of ED visit, headache, and administration of one or more intravenous medications: ketorolac, prochlorperazine, metoclopramide, chlorpromazine, and ondansetron. Primary outcome was treatment success defined by greater than or equal to 50% pain score reduction during ED visit. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression were used to determine predictors of treatment success: age, sex, migraine or mTBI history, time since injury, ED head computed tomographic (CT) imaging, and pretreatment with oral analgesics. A total of 254 patients were included. Mean age was 13.8 years, 51% were female, 80% were white, mean time since injury was 2 days, and 114 patients had negative head CTs. Eighty-six percent of patients had treatment success with 52% experiencing complete resolution of headache. Bivariate analysis showed that patients who had a head CT were less likely to respond (80% vs 91%; P = .008). Intravenous migraine therapy reduces PTH pain scores for children presenting within 14 days after mTBI. Further prospective work is needed to determine long-term benefits of acute PTH treatment in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal of Emergency Medicine 02/2015; 33(5). DOI:10.1016/j.ajem.2015.01.053 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sports-related concussions are receiving increasing attention in both the lay press and medical literature. While most media attention has been on high-profile collegiate or professional athletes, the vast majority of individuals participating in contact and collision sports are adolescents and children. This review provides a practical approach toward youth sports-related concussion with a foundation in the recent guidelines, but including specific considerations when applying these management principles to children and adolescents. Objective measurement of early signs and symptoms is challenging in younger patients, and many commonly used assessment tools await rigorous validation for younger patients. Excellent evidence-based guidelines exist for CT evaluation of mild traumatic brain injury presenting to the emergency department. Evidence suggests that recovery from sports-related concussion takes longer in high school athletes compared with collegiate or professionals; however, rigorous studies below high school age are still lacking. Proper care for concussion in youth requires a delicate balance of clinical skills, age-appropriate assessment, and individualized management to achieve optimal outcomes.CONTINUUM Lifelong Learning in Neurology 12/2014; 20(6 Sports Neurology):1570-87. DOI:10.1212/01.CON.0000458973.71142.7d