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Nucleic Acids Research (Impact Factor: 8.81). 12/2011; 40(Database issue):D48-53. DOI: 10.1093/nar/gkr1202
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT GenBank® is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 250,00 formally described species. These sequences are obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects, including whole-genome shotgun (WGS) and environmental sampling projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs, and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the European Nucleotide Archive (ENA) and the DNA Data Bank of Japan (DDBJ) ensures worldwide coverage. GenBank is accessible through the NCBI Entrez retrieval system, which integrates data from the major DNA and protein sequence databases along with taxonomy, genome, mapping, protein structure and domain information, and the biomedical journal literature via PubMed. BLAST provides sequence similarity searches of GenBank and other sequence databases. Complete bimonthly releases and daily updates of the GenBank database are available by FTP. To access GenBank and its related retrieval and analysis services, begin at the NCBI home page:

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    ABSTRACT: Methanobacterium formicicum BRM9 was isolated from the rumen of a New Zealand Friesan cow grazing a ryegrass/clover pasture, and its genome has been sequenced to provide information on the phylogenetic diversity of rumen methanogens with a view to developing technologies for methane mitigation. The 2.45 Mb BRM9 chromosome has an average G + C content of 41%, and encodes 2,352 protein-coding genes. The genes involved in methanogenesis are comparable to those found in other members of the Methanobacteriaceae with the exception that there is no [Fe]-hydrogenase dehydrogenase (Hmd) which links the methenyl-H4MPT reduction directly with the oxidation of H2. Compared to the rumen Methanobrevibacter strains, BRM9 has a much larger complement of genes involved in determining oxidative stress response, signal transduction and nitrogen fixation. BRM9 also has genes for the biosynthesis of the compatible solute ectoine that has not been reported to be produced by methanogens. The BRM9 genome has a prophage and two CRISPR repeat regions. Comparison to the genomes of other Methanobacterium strains shows a core genome of ~1,350 coding sequences and 190 strain-specific genes in BRM9, most of which are hypothetical proteins or prophage related.
    Standards in Genomic Sciences 01/2014; 9:15. DOI:10.1186/1944-3277-9-15 · 3.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Enzymes active on components of lignocellulosic biomass are used for industrial applications ranging from food processing to biofuels production. These include a diverse array of glycoside hydrolases, carbohydrate esterases, polysaccharide lyases and oxidoreductases. Fungi are prolific producers of these enzymes, spurring fungal genome sequencing efforts to identify and catalogue the genes that encode them. To facilitate the functional annotation of these genes, biochemical data on over 800 fungal lignocellulose-degrading enzymes have been collected from the literature and organized into the searchable database, mycoCLAP ( First implemented in 2011, and updated as described here, mycoCLAP is capable of ranking search results according to closest biochemically characterized homologues: this improves the quality of the annotation, and significantly decreases the time required to annotate novel sequences. The database is freely available to the scientific community, as are the open source applications based on natural language processing developed to support the manual curation of mycoCLAP. Database URL: © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
    Database The Journal of Biological Databases and Curation 01/2015; 2015. DOI:10.1093/database/bav008 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: More than 80% of the microbial genomes in GenBank are of 'draft' quality (12,553 draft vs. 2,679 finished, as of October, 2013). We have examined all the microbial DNA sequences available for complete, draft, and Sequence Read Archive genomes in GenBank as well as three other major public databases, and assigned quality scores for more than 30,000 prokaryotic genome sequences. Scores were assigned using four categories: the completeness of the assembly, the presence of full-length rRNA genes, tRNA composition and the presence of a set of 102 conserved genes in prokaryotes. Most (~88%) of the genomes had quality scores of 0.8 or better and can be safely used for standard comparative genomics analysis. We compared genomes across factors that may influence the score. We found that although sequencing depth coverage of over 100x did not ensure a better score, sequencing read length was a better indicator of sequencing quality. With few exceptions, most of the 30,000 genomes have nearly all the 102 essential genes. The score can be used to set thresholds for screening data when analyzing "all published genomes" and reference data is either not available or not applicable. The scores highlighted organisms for which commonly used tools do not perform well. This information can be used to improve tools and to serve a broad group of users as more diverse organisms are sequenced. Unexpectedly, the comparison of predicted tRNAs across 15,000 high quality genomes showed that anticodons beginning with an 'A' (codons ending with a 'U') are almost non-existent, with the exception of one arginine codon (CGU); this has been noted previously in the literature for a few genomes, but not with the depth found here.
    Standards in Genomic Sciences 01/2014; 9:20. DOI:10.1186/1944-3277-9-20 · 3.17 Impact Factor

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