Physical changes and physiological characteristics of red and green peel during nectarine (cv. Hu018) maturation.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine physical changes in nectarine and distinctive physiological characteristics related to red and green peel under stresses occurring during fruit maturation, information on which is currently not available.
Fruit firmness increased from 4 to 6 weeks after blooming (WAB) then decreased from 6 WAB until ripening. Anthocyanins in red and green peel during nectarine maturation were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography as cyanidin 3-glucoside together and, at a much lower level, cyanidin 3-rutinoside. Cyanidins in red and green peel decreased from 4 to 8 WAB then increased from 8 to 12 WAB. Anthocyanin contents were positively correlated with PAL, POD, A*, MDA and O2(·-) values and inversely correlated with L* and B* values. Red and green peel during maturation could be separated by hierarchical cluster analysis of the tested data.
This study has provided an overview of red and green peel characteristics during nectarine (cv. Hu018) maturation. Values of A*, anthocyanins, O2(·-), MDA, PAL, PPO and POD in red peel were higher than those in green peel, while values of L*, B* and chroma in red peel were lower than those in green peel throughout fruit maturation.
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ABSTRACT: A photo-induced cyclic peroxidation in isolated chloroplasts is described. In an osmotic buffered medium, chloroplasts upon illumination produce malondialdehyde (MDA)—a decomposition product of tri-unsaturated fatty acid hydroperoxides—bleach endogenous chlorophyll, and consume oxygen. These processes show (a) no reaction in the absence of illumination; (b) an initial lag phase upon illumination of 10–20 minutes duration; (c) a linear phase in which the rate is proportional to the square root of the light intensity; (d) cessation of reaction occurring within 3 minutes after illumination ceases; and (e) a termination phase after several hours of illumination. The kinetics of the above processes fit a cyclic peroxidation equation with velocity coefficients near those for chemical peroxidation.The stoichiometry of MDA/O2 = 0.02, and O2Chlbleached = 6.9 correlates well with MDA production efficiency in other biological systems and with the molar ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to chlorophyll. The energies of activation for the lag and linear phases are 17 and 0 kcal/mole, respectively, the same as that for autoxidation. During the linear phase of oxygen uptake the dependence upon temperature and O2 concentration indicates that during the reaction, oxygen tension at the site of peroxidation is 100-fold lower than in the aqueous phase.It is concluded that isolated chloroplasts upon illumination can undergo a cyclic peroxidation initiated by the light absorbed by chlorophyll. Photoperoxidation results in a destruction of the chlorophyll and tri-unsaturated fatty acids of the chloroplast membranes.Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics 05/1968; 125(1):189-98. · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The subcellular distribution and activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, EC 126.96.36.199) were studied in developing peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Zaoyu) fruit. Fruit tissues were separated by differential centrifugation at 15,000g into plastidic and cytosolic fractions. There was no serious loss of enzyme activity (or activation) during the preparation of fractions. G6PDH activity was found in both the plastidic and cytosolic compartments. Moreover, DTT had no effect on the plastidic G6PDH activities, that is, the redox regulatory mechanism did not play an important role in the peach fleshy tissue. Results from the immunogold electron-microscope localization revealed that G6PDH isoenzymes were mainly present in the cytosol, the secondary wall and plastids (chloroplasts and chromoplasts), but scarcely found in the starch granules or the cell wall. In addition to a decrease in fruit firmness, the G6PDH activity in the cytotolic and plastidic fractions increased, and anthocyanin started to accumulate during fruit maturation. These results suggest that G6PDH, by providing precursors for metabolic processes, might be associated with the red coloration that occurs in peach fruit.Journal of Plant Physiology 08/2007; 164(7):934-44. · 2.70 Impact Factor
- Analytical Biochemistry 03/1976; 70(2):616-20. · 2.58 Impact Factor