The impact of obesity on secretion of adiponectin multimeric isoforms differs in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue.
ABSTRACT Objective:Hypoadiponectinemia observed in obesity is associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate secretion of adiponectin and its multimeric isoforms by explants derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in obese and non-obese subjects.Design:Paired samples of SAT and VAT and blood samples were obtained from 23 subjects (10 non-obese and 13 obese) undergoing elective abdominal surgery. Total adiponectin quantities and adiponectin isoforms were measured in conditioned media of explants derived from SAT and VAT using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and non-denaturing western blot, respectively.Results:Total adiponectin plasma levels were lower in obese than in non-obese subjects (P<0.05). Secretion of total adiponectin in adipose tissue (AT) explants was lower in obese than in non-obese subjects in SAT (P<0.05) but not in VAT. In both, SAT and VAT, the most abundant isoform released into conditioned media was the high-molecular weight (HMW) form. Its relative proportion in relation to total adiponectin was higher in conditioned media of explants from both fat depots when compared with plasma (P<0.001). The proportion of secreted HMW vs total adiponectin was higher in VAT than in SAT explants in the group of non-obese individuals (49.3±3.1% in VAT vs 40.6±2.8% in SAT; P<0.01), whereas no difference between the two depots was found in obese subjects (46.2±3.0 % in VAT vs 46.0±2.4 % in SAT).Conclusion:Obesity is associated with the decrease of total adiponectin secretion in SAT. The profile of adiponectin isoforms secreted by SAT and VAT explants differs from that in plasma. Secretion of total adiponectin and HMW isoform of adiponectin are different in obese and non-obese subjects in relation to AT depot.
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived secretory factor that is specifically produced in adipocytes. It exerts effects on energy homeostasis via peripheral and central mechanisms. However, it is not clear whether adiponectin crosses the blood-brain barrier in humans. In serum, adiponectin circulates in several different complexes, each of which has distinct functions. Here, we wanted to test whether adiponectin can be found in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and whether specific adiponectin complexes are enriched in CSF compared with peripheral serum samples. We also wanted to establish whether there is a sex-related difference with regard to the distribution of adiponectin oligomers in CSF. We studied 22 subjects (11 men, 11 women) in this study. Their average BMI was 28.0+/-4.7 kg/m2; average age was 70+/-7 years. Analysis of total adiponectin revealed that adiponectin protein is present in human CSF at approximately 0.1% of serum concentration. The distribution of adiponectin oligomers differs considerably in CSF from that of serum within matched samples from the same patients. Only the adiponectin trimeric and low-molecular-mass hexameric complexes are found in CSF, with a bias towards the trimeric form in most patients. Male subjects have a higher CSF:serum ratio of total adiponectin (p<0.05; n=20) and have slightly higher trimer levels in serum and CSF than female subjects. We conclude that the adiponectin trimer is the predominant oligomer in human CSF.Diabetologia 04/2007; 50(3):634-42. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived serum protein that plays important roles in energy homeostasis, obesity, and insulin sensitivity. Using sucrose gradients and Western blotting of nondenaturing gels, we examined the adiponectin isoforms secreted from human adipose tissue, human and mouse adipocytes, and cell lines in response to pioglitazone added in vitro. The predominant form secreted from adipose tissue in vitro was the high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoform, with small amounts of low-molecular-weight (LMW) forms present. The addition of pioglitazone (1-3 micromM) in vitro increased the secretion of the HMW isoform, with no significant effect on the other isoforms. Human adipose tissue was also examined for changes in adiponectin mRNA levels upon pioglitazone treatment. No difference was detected, suggesting that the effect of pioglitazone is not at the transcriptional level but, rather, at a posttranscriptional phase of the secretory pathway. Additional experiments were conducted to determine whether adiponectin expression was mechanistically similar in other adipose cells. Examination of primary human adipocytes revealed an increase in intracellular HMW isoform with a decline in LMW forms following pioglitazone treatment, with a corresponding increase in the secreted HMW form. Similar results were observed with primary mouse adipocytes, 3T3-F422A cells, and SGBS human adipocyte cells, although differences in the distribution of HMW and LMW isoforms were apparent between cell types. Although there are differences in isoforms between species, in all cases pioglitazone served to increase the secretion of the HMW form of adiponectin.AJP Endocrinology and Metabolism 12/2006; 291(5):E1100-5. · 4.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potent insulin-sensitizing effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists are well established. However, it is still a matter of intense debate as to which tissue(s) represent the most critical sites of action for PPARgamma agonists, and what the relevant target genes are that ultimately mediate the improvements in insulin sensitivity. The cell type with the highest levels of PPARgamma is the adipocyte, and as such the adipocyte is an excellent candidate cell to look for critical mediators of PPARgamma agonist action. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, is upregulated in response to PPARgamma agonist exposure, and its serum levels consequently increase significantly. Genetic, pharmacological and clinical studies have demonstrated potent insulin-sensitizing effects of adiponectin. Here, we summarize the evidence that implicates adiponectin as a critical mediator of PPARgamma-agonist-mediated improvements in insulin sensitivity, particularly in the context of PPARgamma-agonist-mediated enhancements of hepatic insulin sensitivity.International Journal of Obesity 04/2005; 29 Suppl 1:S17-23. · 5.22 Impact Factor