Oncological outcomes of the prostate cancer patients registered in 2004: report from the Cancer Registration Committee of the JUA.
ABSTRACT In 2001, the Cancer Registration Committee of the Japanese Urological Association initiated a data collection of prostate cancer patients into a computer-based database. The aim of the present study is to report the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of prostate cancer patients diagnosed in 2004 in Japan.
Overall, 11,385 patients from 239 institutions were registered into the database. After excluding 1105 patients because of insufficient data, duplication or insufficient follow up, 10,280 patients were eligible for the analysis. Most of them (10,198, 99.2%) were Japanese and 1195 (11.6%) had metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis. The mean and median follow up was 53.2 months and 61.5 months, respectively.
The 5-year overall and prostate cancer-specific survival rate was 89.7% and 94.8%, respectively. The 5-year prostate cancer-specific survival rate of M0 and M1 disease was 98.4% and 61.1%, respectively. For 8424 cases of organ-confined or regional disease, Japanese urologists used as the initial treatment hormone ablation therapy alone (3360, 39.9%), radical prostatectomy (3140, 38.1%), radiation therapy (1530, 18.2%) and watchful waiting (394, 4.7%) including active surveillance or palliative observation.
This is the first large population report of survival data in Japanese prostate cancer patients. In Japan, the disease population, survival period with metastatic disease and ratio of patients having hormone ablation therapy differ from those in Western countries.
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ABSTRACT: Optimal management of radiotherapy for prostate cancer patients has become a major concern for physicians in Japan. We reviewed published reports identifying the differences in the patterns of care for prostate cancer patients treated with radical external beam radiotherapy in Japan, Germany, and the United States. The reports indicate that Japanese patients have more advanced primary disease than patients in Germany or the United States. These patient characteristics for Japan and the United States have been almost unchanged for several years. Regarding radiotherapy, conformal radiotherapy was less frequently administered to patients in Japan than patients in Germany or the United States, and the total radiation dose was higher in Germany and the United States than in Japan. Concerning changes in trends in the patterns of radiotherapy, the percentage of patients treated with higher dose levels in the United States has rapidly increased, whereas the percentage of patients receiving these dose levels in Japan has remained extremely low. On the other hand, hormonal therapy has been used more frequently in Japan than in Germany or the United States. These findings indicate that patient characteristics and patterns of care for prostate cancer in Japan are considerably different from those in Germany or the United States.Radiation Medicine 03/2008; 26(2):57-62.
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ABSTRACT: Although there is uncertainty about the effect of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening on the rate of prostate cancer death, there is little uncertainty about its effect on the rate of prostate cancer diagnosis. Systematic estimates of the number of men affected, however, to our knowledge, do not exist. We obtained data on age-specific incidence and initial course of therapy from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. We then used age-specific male population estimates from the US Census to determine the excess (or deficit) in the number of men diagnosed and treated in each year after 1986-the year before PSA screening was introduced. Overall incidence of prostate cancer rose rapidly after 1986, peaked in 1992, and then declined, albeit to levels considerably higher than those in 1986. Overall incidence, however, obscured distinct age-specific patterns: The relative incidence rate (2005 relative to 1986) was 0.56 in men aged 80 years and older, 1.09 in men aged 70-79 years, 1.91 in men aged 60-69 years, 3.64 in men aged 50-59 years, and 7.23 in men younger than 50 years. Since 1986, an estimated additional 1 305 600 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, 1 004 800 of whom were definitively treated for the disease. Using the most optimistic assumption about the benefit of screening-that the entire decline in prostate cancer mortality observed during this period is attributable to this additional diagnosis-we estimated that, for each man who experienced the presumed benefit, more than 20 had to be diagnosed with prostate cancer. The introduction of PSA screening has resulted in more than 1 million additional men being diagnosed and treated for prostate cancer in the United States. The growth is particularly dramatic for younger men. Given the considerable time that has passed since PSA screening began, most of this excess incidence must represent overdiagnosis.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 09/2009; 101(19):1325-9. · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to identify the treatment planning process for Japanese patients with localized prostate cancer. The Patterns of Care Study conducted a random survey of 61 institutions nationwide. Detailed information was collected on prostate cancer patients without distant metastases who were irradiated during the periods 2003-05. Radiation treatment planning and delivery were evaluated in 397 patients who were treated radically with external photon beam radiotherapy. Computed tomography data were used for planning in approximately 90% of the patients. Contrast was rarely used for treatment planning. Simulations and treatments were performed in the supine position in almost all patients. Immobilization devices were used in only 15% of the patients. Verification of the treatment fields using portal films or electric portal imaging devices was performed in most of the patients. However, regular or multiple verifications in addition to initial treatment and/or portal volume changes were performed in only 30% of the patients. Typical beam arrangements for treatment of the prostate consisted of a four-field box. Three-dimensional conformal techniques were applied less frequently in non-academic hospitals than in academic ones. Modernized multileaf collimators with leaf widths < or =10 mm were used in about two-thirds of the patients. Although the total doses given to the prostate were affected by the leaf widths, there were no significant differences between leaf widths of 5 and 10 mm. The results of the survey identified certain patterns in the current treatment planning and delivery processes for localized prostate cancer in Japan.Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2009; 39(12):820-4. · 1.90 Impact Factor