Localization of acidic phospholipid cardiolipin and DnaA in mycobacteria

Biomedical Research, The University of Texas Health Science Center, 11937 US Hwy @ 271, Tyler, TX 75708-3154, United States.
Tuberculosis (Edinburgh, Scotland) (Impact Factor: 2.71). 12/2011; 91 Suppl 1:S150-5. DOI: 10.1016/
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Acidic phospholipids such as cardiolipin (CL) have been shown to modulate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) DnaA interactions with ATP. In the present study, using nonyl acridine orange fluorescent dye we localized CL-enriched regions to midcell septa and poles of actively dividing cells. We also found that CL-enriched regions were not visualized in cells defective for septa formation as a consequence of altered FtsZ levels. Using Mtb cultures synchronized for DNA replication we show that CL localization could be used as a marker for cell division and cell cycle progression. Finally, we show that the localization pattern of the DnaA-green fluorescent fusion protein is similar to CL. Our results suggest that DnaA colocalizes with CL during cell cycle progression.

32 Reads
  • Source
    • "In contrast, in mycobacteria, poles are very active loci where lateral PG synthesis [22] and most likely free MA synthesis [52], occur during bacterial elongation. In addition, poles are also involved in protein export [53], DNA transfer [32], chromosomal partitioning and DNA replication [54], [55] as well as phosphorylation by Ser/Thr protein kinases [56]. Mycobacterial poles are thus certainly not suitable for detrimental protein accumulation. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Understanding the mechanism that controls space-time coordination of elongation and division of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is critical for fighting the tubercle bacillus. Most of the numerous enzymes involved in the synthesis of Mycolic acid - Arabinogalactan-Peptidoglycan complex (MAPc) in the cell wall are essential in vivo. Using a dynamic approach, we localized Mtb enzymes belonging to the fatty acid synthase-II (FAS-II) complexes and involved in mycolic acid (MA) biosynthesis in a mycobacterial model of Mtb: M. smegmatis. Results also showed that the MA transporter MmpL3 was present in the mycobacterial envelope and was specifically and dynamically accumulated at the poles and septa during bacterial growth. This localization was due to its C-terminal domain. Moreover, the FAS-II enzymes were co-localized at the poles and septum with Wag31, the protein responsible for the polar localization of mycobacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. The dynamic localization of FAS-II and of the MA transporter with Wag31, at the old-growing poles and at the septum suggests that the main components of the mycomembrane may potentially be synthesized at these precise foci. This finding highlights a major difference between mycobacteria and other rod-shaped bacteria studied to date. Based on the already known polar activities of envelope biosynthesis in mycobacteria, we propose the existence of complex polar machinery devoted to the biogenesis of the entire envelope. As a result, the mycobacterial pole would represent the Achilles' heel of the bacillus at all its growing stages.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97148. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0097148 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: At all levels of Life, systems evolve on the 'scales of equilibria'. At the level of bacteria, the individual cell must favor one of two opposing strategies and either take risks to grow or avoid risks to survive. It has been proposed in the Dualism hypothesis that the growth and survival strategies depend on non-equilibrium and equilibrium hyperstructures, respectively. It has been further proposed that the cell cycle itself is the way cells manage to balance the ratios of these types of hyperstructure so as to achieve the compromise solution of living on the two scales. Here, we attempt to re-interpret a major event, the initiation of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli, in the light of scales of equilibria. This entails thinking in terms of hyperstructures as responsible for intensity sensing and quantity sensing and how this sensing might help explain the role of the DnaA protein in initiation of replication. We outline experiments and an automaton approach to the cell cycle that should test and refine the scales concept.
    12/2012; 2(4):286-312. DOI:10.3390/life2040286
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The development and application of a highly versatile suite of tools for mycobacterial genetics, coupled with widespread use of "omics" approaches to elucidate the structure, function, and regulation of mycobacterial proteins, has led to spectacular advances in our understanding of the metabolism and physiology of mycobacteria. In this article, we provide an update on nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication in mycobacteria, highlighting key findings from the past 10 to 15 years. In the first section, we focus on nucleotide metabolism, ranging from the biosynthesis, salvage, and interconversion of purine and pyrimidine ribonucleotides to the formation of deoxyribonucleotides. The second part of the article is devoted to DNA replication, with a focus on replication initiation and elongation, as well as DNA unwinding. We provide an overview of replication fidelity and mutation rates in mycobacteria and summarize evidence suggesting that DNA replication occurs during states of low metabolic activity, and conclude by suggesting directions for future research to address key outstanding questions. Although this article focuses primarily on observations from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is interspersed, where appropriate, with insights from, and comparisons with, other mycobacterial species as well as better characterized bacterial models such as Escherichia coli. Finally, a common theme underlying almost all studies of mycobacterial metabolism is the potential to identify and validate functions or pathways that can be exploited for tuberculosis drug discovery. In this context, we have specifically highlighted those processes in mycobacterial DNA replication that might satisfy this critical requirement.
    10/2014; 2(5). DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.MGM2-0001-2013
Show more