High-efficiency counterselection recombineering for site-directed mutagenesis in bacterial artificial chromosomes.
ABSTRACT Whereas bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) offer many advantages in studies of gene and protein function, generation of seamless, precisely mutated BACs has been difficult. Here we describe a counterselection-based recombineering method and its accompanying reagents. After identifying intramolecular recombination as the major problem in counterselection, we built a strategy to reduce these unwanted events by expressing Redβ alone at the crucial step. We enhanced this method by using phosphothioated oligonucleotides, using a sequence-altered rpsL counterselection gene and developing online software for oligonucleotide design. We illustrated this method by generating transgenic mammalian cell lines carrying small interfering RNA-resistant and point-mutated BAC transgenes. Using this approach, we generated mutated TACC3 transgenes to identify phosphorylation-specific spindle defects after knockdown of endogenous TACC3 expression. Our results highlight the complementary use of precisely mutated BAC transgenes and RNA interference in the study of cell biology at physiological expression levels and regulation.
- SourceAvailable from: Andrei I. Pozniakovsky[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The interpretation of genome sequences requires reliable and standardized methods to assess protein function at high throughput. Here we describe a fast and reliable pipeline to study protein function in mammalian cells based on protein tagging in bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs). The large size of the BAC transgenes ensures the presence of most, if not all, regulatory elements and results in expression that closely matches that of the endogenous gene. We show that BAC transgenes can be rapidly and reliably generated using 96-well-format recombineering. After stable transfection of these transgenes into human tissue culture cells or mouse embryonic stem cells, the localization, protein-protein and/or protein-DNA interactions of the tagged protein are studied using generic, tag-based assays. The same high-throughput approach will be generally applicable to other model systems.Nature Methods 06/2008; 5(5):409-15. · 23.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome sequencing and annotation projects define the complete sets of RNA and protein components for living systems. They also present the challenge to generate functional information for thousands of previously uncharacterized genes. Protein tagging with fluorescent or affinity tags provides a generic way to describe protein expression and localization patterns and protein-protein interactions. The genome wide application of this approach in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has resulted in a comprehensive picture of the core proteome of a simple, well-studied model system. Extending these studies to more complex, multicellular model organisms, would allow us to place protein function onto a 4 dimensional space-time map, and will improve our understanding of the complex processes of development and differentiation. This will require efficient protein tagging methods and new high performance tags. Here we present a generic protein tagging approach for the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The method is based on recombination mediated DNA engineering of genomic BAC clones into tagged transgenes for integrative transformation. C.elegans offers unique advantages for function discovery through protein tagging: compact and a well annotated genome, combined with a simple and well-understood anatomy and pattern of development. However, the methods for protein tagging in C.elegans have so far been inefficient and largely dependent on artificial cDNA based constructs, which can lack important regulatory elements. In contrast, our approach combines the advantages of authentic regulation with a new application of recombineering, which is simple, fast and efficient. For the first time we apply liquid culture cloning for multiple recombineering steps. This is particularly important when high throughput applications are considered, as it offers significant advantages in scale up and automation. We show that the BAC derived transgenes can be used for stable, integrative transformation in C. elegans. We show that the tagged transgene can take over the function of its endogenous counterpart. Using florescent reporter, we reproduce known and document new expression patterns. The second part of the thesis describes a project that we undertook to develop improved double affinity cassettes for protein purification. We evaluated the performance of 5 new double tag combinations in vitro and in mammalian culture cells. All of the new cassettes performed well and present a valuable tool for protein interaction studies in higher model systems.01/2006;
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ABSTRACT: Recombineering is employed to modify large DNA clones such as fosmids, BACs and PACs. Subtle and seamless modifications can be achieved using counter-selection strategies in which a donor cassette carrying both positive and negative markers inserted in the target clone is replaced by the desired sequence change. We are applying counter-selection recombineering to modify bacmid bMON14272, a recombinant baculoviral genome, as we wish to engineer the virus into a therapeutically useful gene delivery vector with cell targeting characteristics. Initial attempts to replace gp64 with Fusion (F) genes from other baculoviruses resulted in many rearranged clones in which the counter-selection cassette had been deleted. Bacmid bMON14272 contains nine highly homologous regions (hrs) and deletions were mapped to recombination between hr pairs. Recombineering modifications were attempted to decrease intramolecular recombination and/or increase recombineering efficiency. Of these only the use of longer homology arms on the donor molecule proved effective permitting seamless modification. bMON14272, because of the presence of the hr sequences, can be considered equivalent to a highly repetitive BAC and, as such, the optimized method detailed here should prove useful to others applying counter-selection recombineering to modify BACs or PACs containing similar regions of significant repeating homologies.Nucleic Acids Research 09/2010; 38(16):e166. · 8.28 Impact Factor