Safety profile of Alzheimer's disease populations in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and other 18-month studies
ABSTRACT Demonstration of a disease-modifying effect of a therapeutic agent on Alzheimer's disease (AD) requires a trial lasting for at least 18 months. An understanding of expected rates of adverse events (AEs), overall discontinuations, and discontinuations due to AEs, serious AEs, and deaths would be useful in planning such trials.
We examined safety information for patients taking placebo from five published 18-month AD trials and for patients from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study.
AEs reported consistently across multiple studies were dyspnea (occurring in 5.3%-5.8% of patients), headache (4.0%-5.5%), constipation (4.3%-4.7%), nausea (2.0%-5.8%), joint swelling (3.6%-3.7%), vomiting (3.6%-3.7%), and anxiety (3.2%-3.6%). Larger multinational studies, as compared with smaller studies with fewer sites and geographies, demonstrated greater overall discontinuations (24.6%-33.0% vs 8.2%-21.0%) and greater discontinuations due to AEs (9.5%-11.6% vs 2.7%-3.2%). Rates of death (1.8%-2.4%) and SAEs (19.9%-21.2%) were consistent across 18 month published studies and in ADNI; fall was the most common SAE (2.6%-4.0%) where SAEs were reported.
In general, comparable types of AEs, frequency of deaths, and serious AEs were seen for patients taking placebo in five randomized, controlled 18-month AD trials and in Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, whereas rates of discontinuations were more variable. Evaluation across studies was complicated by inconsistent methods of reporting safety information. Evaluation of large databases of placebo patients from therapeutic AD trials is needed to further enhance the understanding of expected safety outcomes in clinical trials of AD patients.
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ABSTRACT: Background Interpreting Alzheimer's disease (AD) clinical trial (CT) outcomes is complicated by treatment dropouts and adverse events (AEs). In elderly participants, AE rates, dropouts, and deaths are important considerations as they may undermine the validity of clinical trials. Published discontinuation and safety data are limited. Methods Safety data from 1054 placebo-treated participants in IDENTITY and IDENTITY-2, 76-week, Phase 3 AD studies conducted in 31 countries, were pooled, annualized, and summarized overall, by country and age group. Results Median age was 74.2 (interquartile range 67.9–79.5) years; 57.4% were female; and median observation time was 63.2 (interquartile range 41.6–77.4) weeks when study drug dosing was halted. Overall annualized rates for discontinuations, discontinuations due to AEs, serious adverse events (SAEs), and deaths were 21.6% (range 19.6%–24.0%), 8.2% (range 8.1%–8.3%), 12.0%, and 1.7%, respectively. AE and discontinuation rates varied by country and age groups. Fall, pneumonia, and atrial fibrillation AEs were more frequent in the oldest age group. Conclusions These annualized placebo safety data provide insight into the course of enrolled patients with mild-to-moderate AD, and are useful in planning longer term trials and in monitoring safety.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 03/2014; 11(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2013.11.008 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) is an ongoing, longitudinal, multicenter study designed to develop clinical, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarkers for the early detection and tracking of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The study aimed to enroll 400 subjects with early mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 200 subjects with early AD, and 200 normal control subjects; $67 million funding was provided by both the public and private sectors, including the National Institute on Aging, 13 pharmaceutical companies, and 2 foundations that provided support through the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health. This article reviews all papers published since the inception of the initiative and summarizes the results as of February 2011. The major accomplishments of ADNI have been as follows: (1) the development of standardized methods for clinical tests, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in a multicenter setting; (2) elucidation of the patterns and rates of change of imaging and CSF biomarker measurements in control subjects, MCI patients, and AD patients. CSF biomarkers are consistent with disease trajectories predicted by β-amyloid cascade (Hardy, J Alzheimers Dis 2006;9(Suppl 3):151-3) and tau-mediated neurodegeneration hypotheses for AD, whereas brain atrophy and hypometabolism levels show predicted patterns but exhibit differing rates of change depending on region and disease severity; (3) the assessment of alternative methods of diagnostic categorization. Currently, the best classifiers combine optimum features from multiple modalities, including MRI, [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET, CSF biomarkers, and clinical tests; (4) the development of methods for the early detection of AD. CSF biomarkers, β-amyloid 42 and tau, as well as amyloid PET may reflect the earliest steps in AD pathology in mildly symptomatic or even nonsymptomatic subjects, and are leading candidates for the detection of AD in its preclinical stages; (5) the improvement of clinical trial efficiency through the identification of subjects most likely to undergo imminent future clinical decline and the use of more sensitive outcome measures to reduce sample sizes. Baseline cognitive and/or MRI measures generally predicted future decline better than other modalities, whereas MRI measures of change were shown to be the most efficient outcome measures; (6) the confirmation of the AD risk loci CLU, CR1, and PICALM and the identification of novel candidate risk loci; (7) worldwide impact through the establishment of ADNI-like programs in Europe, Asia, and Australia; (8) understanding the biology and pathobiology of normal aging, MCI, and AD through integration of ADNI biomarker data with clinical data from ADNI to stimulate research that will resolve controversies about competing hypotheses on the etiopathogenesis of AD, thereby advancing efforts to find disease-modifying drugs for AD; and (9) the establishment of infrastructure to allow sharing of all raw and processed data without embargo to interested scientific investigators throughout the world. The ADNI study was extended by a 2-year Grand Opportunities grant in 2009 and a renewal of ADNI (ADNI-2) in October 2010 through to 2016, with enrollment of an additional 550 participants.Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 10/2011; 8(1 Suppl):S1-68. DOI:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.09.172 · 17.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Selective modulation of different Aβ products of an intramembrane protease γ-secretase, could be the most promising strategy for development of effective therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We describe how different drug-candidates can modulate γ-secretase activity in cells, by studying how DAPT affects changes in γ-secretase activity caused by gradual increase in Aβ metabolism. Aβ 1-40 secretion in the presence of DAPT shows biphasic activation-inhibition dose-response curves. The biphasic mechanism is a result of modulation of γ-secretase activity by multiple substrate and inhibitor molecules that can bind to the enzyme simultaneously. The activation is due to an increase in γ-secretase's kinetic affinity for its substrate, which can make the enzyme increasingly more saturated with otherwise sub-saturating substrate. The noncompetitive inhibition that prevails at the saturating substrate can decrease the maximal activity. The synergistic activation-inhibition effects can drastically reduce γ-secretase's capacity to process its physiological substrates. This reduction makes the biphasic inhibitors exceptionally prone to the toxic side-effects and potentially pathogenic. Without the modulation, γ-secretase activity on it physiological substrate in cells is only 14% of its maximal activity, and far below the saturation. Presented mechanism can explain why moderate inhibition of γ-secretase cannot lead to effective therapies, the pharmacodynamics of Aβ-rebound phenomenon, and recent failures of the major drug-candidates such as semagacestat. Novel improved drug-candidates can be prepared from competitive inhibitors that can bind to different sites on γ-secretase simultaneously. Our quantitative analysis of the catalytic capacity can facilitate the future studies of the therapeutic potential of γ-secretase and the pathogenic changes in Aβ metabolism.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e50759. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050759 · 3.53 Impact Factor