Trichomonas vaginalis Pathobiology: New Insights from the Genome Sequence

Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
Advances in Parasitology (Impact Factor: 6.23). 01/2011; 77:87-140. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-12-391429-3.00006-X
Source: PubMed


The draft genome of the common sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis encodes one of the largest known proteome with 60,000 candidate proteins. This provides parasitologists and molecular cell biologists alike with exciting, yet challenging, opportunities to unravel the molecular features of the parasite's cellular systems and potentially the molecular basis of its pathobiology. Here, recent investigations addressing selected aspects of the parasite's molecular cell biology are discussed, including surface and secreted virulent factors, membrane trafficking, cell signalling, the degradome, and the potential role of RNA interference in the regulation of gene expression.

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Available from: Robert P. Hirt, Sep 17, 2014
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    • "Understanding the mechanisms by which T. vaginalis colonizes the host is central to developing strategies to prevent infection. Despite the prevalence of trichomoniasis , the underlying biochemical processes that lead to pathogenesis are poorly defined (Fiori et al., 1999; Hirt et al., 2011; Ryan et al., 2011). As an extracellular organism , surface proteins are likely to play important roles in the initial adherence to mucosal tissue as well as the long-term survival of the pathogen on mucosal surfaces. "
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    ABSTRACT: The parasite Trichomonas vaginalis is the causative agent of trichomoniasis, a prevalent sexually transmitted infection. Here, we report the cellular analysis of T. vaginalis tetraspanin family (TvTSPs). This family of membrane proteins has been implicated in cell adhesion, migration and proliferation in vertebrates. We found that the expression of several members of the family is up-regulated upon contact with vaginal ectocervical cells (VECs). We demonstrate that most TvTSPs are localized on the surface and intracellular vesicles and that the C-terminal intracellular tails of surface TvTSPs are necessary for proper localization. Analyses of full length TvTSP8 and a mutant that lacks the C-terminal tail indicates that surface localized TvTSP8 is involved in parasite aggregation, suggesting a role for this protein in parasite: parasite interaction. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Cellular Microbiology 02/2015; 17(8). DOI:10.1111/cmi.12431 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    • "The transcriptomic response of Trichomonas to contact with VECs underpins three fundamental processes thought to be essential for the parasite to successfully establish an infection and this is increasing the expression of genes involved in (i) protein synthesis (proliferation), (ii) phenotypic plasticity and (iii) host cell degradation (Figs. 3 and 4). Several cysteine protease-encoding genes were up-regulated across all three time points among the AdInf libraries – most dominantly TVAG_355480 with an up-regulation of approximately 90-fold – supporting their suspected central role regarding virulence, cytoadherence, hemolysis and cytotoxicity of T. vaginalis (Sommer et al., 2005; Hirt et al., 2011; Ramón-Luing et al., 2011). The major up-regulation of actin and actin-associated genes provides further evidence for this part of the cytoskeleton playing a lead role during the amoeboid transition as suggested previously (Brugerolle et al., 1996; Bricheux et al., 2000; Kusdian et "
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    ABSTRACT: The human pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis has the largest protozoan genome known, potentially encoding approximately 60,000 proteins. To what degree these genes are expressed is not well known and only a few key transcription factors and promoter domains have been identified. To shed light on the expression capacity of the parasite and transcriptional regulation during phase transitions, we deep sequenced the transcriptomes of the protozoan during two environmental stimuli of the early infection process: exposure to oxygen and contact with vaginal epithelial cells. Eleven 3' fragment libraries from different time points after exposure to oxygen only and in combination with human tissue were sequenced, generating more than 150 million reads which mapped onto 33,157 protein coding genes in total and a core set of more than 20,000 genes represented within all libraries. The data uncover gene family expression regulation in this parasite and give evidence for a concentrated response to the individual stimuli. Oxygen stress primarily reveals the parasite's strategies to deal with oxygen radicals. The exposure of oxygen-adapted parasites to human epithelial cells primarily induces cytoskeletal rearrangement and proliferation, reflecting the rapid morphological transition from spindle shaped flagellates to tissue-feeding and actively dividing amoeboids.
    International journal for parasitology 05/2013; 43(9). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpara.2013.04.002 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    • "Saposin-like proteins Cytolytic activity ND ND ND ND ND [24] "
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    ABSTRACT: This review focused on potential regulatory mechanisms of Trichomonas vaginalis virulence properties, cytoadherence, cytotoxicity, phagocytosis, hemolysis, induction of apoptosis, and immune evasion in response to environmental factors of the human urogenital tract, iron, zinc, and polyamines. Understanding the multifactorial nature of trichomonal pathogenesis and its regulation may help to unravel the survival strategies of trichomonads and to implement prevention policies, opportune diagnosis, and alternative treatments for control of trichomoniasis.
    Microbes and Infection 09/2012; 14(15). DOI:10.1016/j.micinf.2012.09.004 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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