Animal Models of Lung Cancer: Characterization and Use for Chemoprevention Research
ABSTRACT Of the potential sites of cancer development, cancer of the lung accounts for the highest number of cancer deaths each year in the United States (Jemal et al., 2010(1)). Based on its histopathological features, lung cancer is grouped into small cell lung cancer (SCLC; ∼20%) and non-SCLC (NSCLC; ∼80%), which is further divided into three subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma (∼30%), adenocarcinoma (∼50%), and large cell lung carcinoma. Every subtype of lung cancer has a relatively low 5-year survival rate that is attributed, in part, to the fact that they are routinely diagnosed at later histologic stages. Due to this alarming statistic, it is necessary to develop not only new and effective means of treatment but also of prevention. One of the promising approaches is chemoprevention which is the use of synthetic or natural agents to inhibit the initial development of or further progression of early lung lesions (Hong and Sporn, 1997). Many compounds have been identified as potentially effective chemopreventive agents using animal models. Most chemopreventive studies have been performed using mouse models which were developed to study lung adenomas or adenocarcinomas. More recently, models of squamous cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer have also been developed. This review seeks to highlight mouse models which we helped to develop and presents the results of recent chemopreventive studies that we have performed in models of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell lung cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which promotes cell survival and division, is found at abnormally high levels on the surface of many cancer cell types, including many cases of non-small cell lung cancer. Erlotinib (Tarceva), an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is a so-called targeted drug that inhibits the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, and thus targets cancer cells with some specificity while doing less damage to normal cells. However, erlotinib resistance can occur, reducing the efficacy of this treatment. To develop more effective therapeutic interventions by overcoming this resistance problem, we combined the histone deacetylase inhibitor, MPT0E028, with erlotinib in an effort to increase their antitumor effects in erlotinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cells. This combined treatment yielded significant growth inhibition, induced the expression of apoptotic proteins (PARP, γH2AX, and caspase-3), increased the levels of acetylated histone H3, and showed synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo. These effects were independent of the mutation status of the genes encoding EGFR or K-Ras. MPT0E028 synergistically blocked key regulators of the EGFR/HER2 signaling pathways, attenuating multiple compensatory pathways (e.g., AKT, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and c-MET). Our results indicate that this combination therapy might be a promising strategy for facilitating the effects of erlotinib monotherapy by activating various networks. Taken together, our data provide compelling evidence that MPT0E028 has the potential to improve the treatment of heterogeneous and drug-resistant tumors that cannot be controlled with single-target agents.Cell Death & Disease 09/2013; 4(9):e810. DOI:10.1038/cddis.2013.330 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Honokiol is an important bioactive compound found in the bark of Magnolia tree. It is a non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist, and capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of tumor types both in vitro and in xenograft models. However, to fully appreciate the potential chemopreventive activity of honokiol, a less artificial model system is required. To that end, this study examined the chemopreventive efficacy of honokiol in an initiation model of squamous cell lung cancer (SCC). This model system uses the carcinogen N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) which is applied topically, reliably triggering the development of SCC within 24-26 weeks. Administration of honokiol significantly reduced the percentage of bronchial that exhibit abnormal lung SCC histology from 24.4% bronchial in control to 11.0% bronchial in honokiol treated group (p= 0.01) while protecting normal bronchial histology (present in 20.5% of bronchial in control group and 38.5% of bronchial in honokiol treated group (p= 0.004)). P63 staining at the SCC site confirmed the lung SCCs phenotype. In vitro studies revealed that honokiol inhibited lung SCC cells proliferation, arrested cells at the G1/S cell cycle checkpoint, while also leading to increased apoptosis. Our study showed that interfering with mitochondrial respiration is a novel mechanism by which honokiol increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mitochondria, triggered apoptosis, and finally leads to the inhibition of lung SCC. This novel mechanism of targeting mitochondrial suggests honokiol as a potential lung SCC chemopreventive agent.Cancer Prevention Research 09/2014; 7(11). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-14-0091 · 5.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the chemopreventive activity of Korea white ginseng (KWG) in a mouse lung SCC model. N-nitroso-trischloroethylurea (NTCU) was used to induce lung tumors in female Swiss mice, and KWG was given orally. KWG significantly reduced the percentage of lung SCCs from 26.5% in the control group to 9.1% in the KWG group, meantime, increased percentage of normal bronchial and hyperplasia. KWG was also found to greatly reduce squamous cell lung tumor area from an average of 9.4% in control group to 1.5% in the KWG group. Treatment with KWG decreased Ki-67 staining, suggesting that the lung tumor inhibitory effects of KWG were partly through inhibition of proliferation. HPLC/MS identified 10 ginsenosides from KWG extracts, Rb1 and Rd being most abundant as detected in mouse blood and lung tissue. The tumor inhibitory effects of KWG are mediated by inhibition of AP-1, as demonstrated by in vitro study conducted on AP-1/ NFkB dependent mouse NSCLC cell lines. Western blotting of lung tissues also indicated that NTCU upregulated AP-1 through phosphorylation of JNK,which was down regulated by KWG in concurrence with its chemoprevention function.Cancer Prevention Research 04/2013; 6(6). DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-12-0366 · 5.27 Impact Factor