The paraoxonase 1, 2 and 3 in humans.

Department of Medical Biochemistry and Hematology, Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
Biochemia Medica (Impact Factor: 1.87). 01/2011; 21(2):122-30. DOI: 10.11613/BM.2011.020
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The paraoxonase gene family in humans includes three members: PON1, PON2 and PON3. The products of those three genes are the following enzymes: paraoxonase 1 (PON1), paraoxonase 2 (PON2) and paraoxonase 3 (PON3). PON1 is mainly associated with a high density lipoprotein (HDL). A small amount of this enzyme is also bound to very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and postprandial chylomicrons. PON1 possess organophosphatase, arylesterase and lactonase activity and it hydrolyzes many different substrates. It is also known that PON1 may have antiatherogenic function. Compared to the PON1, PON2 and PON3 are much less studied and described. PON2 is ubiquitously expressed intracellular protein, while PON3 is bound to HDL, like PON1. The both enzymes possess antioxidant properties.

1 Bookmark
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Advances in DNA sequencing and proteomics have facilitated quantitative comparisons of snake venom composition. Most studies have employed one approach or the other. Here, both Illumina cDNA sequencing and LC/MS were used to compare the transcriptomes and proteomes of two pit vipers, Protobothrops flavoviridis and Ovophis okinavensis, which differ greatly in their biology. Sequencing of venom gland cDNA produced 104,830 transcripts. The Protobothrops transcriptome contained transcripts for 103 venom-related proteins, while the Ovophis transcriptome contained 95. In both, transcript abundances spanned six orders of magnitude. Mass spectrometry identified peptides from 100% of transcripts that occurred at higher than contaminant (e.g. human keratin) levels, including a number of proteins never before sequenced from snakes. These transcriptomes reveal fundamentally different envenomation strategies. Adult Protobothrops venom promotes hemorrhage, hypotension, incoagulable blood, and prey digestion, consistent with mammalian predation. Ovophis venom composition is less readily interpreted, owing to insufficient pharmacological data for venom serine and metalloproteases, which comprise more than 97.3% of Ovophis transcripts, but only 38.0% of Protobothrops transcripts. Ovophis venom apparently represents a hybrid strategy optimized for frogs and small mammals. This study illustrates the power of cDNA sequencing combined with MS profiling. The former quantifies transcript composition, allowing detection of novel proteins, but cannot indicate which proteins are actually secreted, as does MS. We show, for the first time, that transcript and peptide abundances are correlated. This means that MS can be used for quantitative, non-invasive venom profiling, which will be beneficial for studies of endangered species.
    BMC Genomics 11/2013; 14(1):790. · 4.40 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Introduction: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an antioxidative enzyme manly associated with high density lipoproteins (HDL) in the peripheral blood. The aim of this study was to determine the PON1 paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We also aimed to determine the concentration of reduced thiol groups as a marker of protein oxidation. Materials and methods: The study included 105 patients with stable COPD and 44 healthy controls. PON1 activities and thiols concentration were assayed in sera by spectrophotometry. Results: PON1 basal (POX) and salt-stimulated paraoxonase activity (POX1) as well as arylesterase activity (ARE) were significantly reduced in COPD patients. In addition, concentration of reduced thiol groups was significantly decreased in COPD group. PON1 activities were similar in patients with different disease severity (GOLD stages). However, a significant reduction in POX, POX1 and ARE was observed already in GOLD II stage when compared to controls. POX and POX1 showed modest while ARE yielded very good power for discrimination between healthy subjects and COPD patients. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that ARE is a good COPD predictor. Conclusion: Reduction of PON1 activity observed in COPD patients could be partly caused by oxidative environment. Lower concentrations of reduced thiol groups in COPD patients suggest that a decrease in PON1 activity could reflect oxidative changes of enzyme free cysteine residues. Furthermore, decreased PON1 arylesterase activity might indicate a down-regulation of PON1 concentration. Our results suggest that ARE could be considered as potential biomarker for COPD diagnosis.
    COPD Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 05/2014; · 2.73 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women have higher risk of cardiovascular disease. One of the contributing factors could be reduced activity of anti-atherogenic enzyme paraoxonase 1 (PON1). The aim of this study was to examine differences in the lipid status, paraoxonase and arylesterase PON1 activities and PON1 phenotype in women with regular menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal women.
    Biochemia Medica 01/2014; 24(2):273-80. · 1.87 Impact Factor


Available from
May 23, 2014