Antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical sources in northeast Ethiopia
ABSTRACT Escherichia coli is the leading cause of urinary tract, ear, wound and other infections in humans. Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among E. coli is a growing concern worldwide.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of E. coli from clinical samples.
A retrospective review of culture results of urine, ear discharge, pus swab from wounds, and eye discharge was done. A total of 3,149 samples were analyzed for isolation and identification of bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing.
E. coli was isolated from 446 (14.2%) samples. The highest isolation rate was obtained from urine samples 203 (45.5%). High resistance rates to erythromycin (89.4%), amoxicillin (86.0%) and tetracycline (72.6%) were documented. However, significantly high degree of sensitivity rates to nitrofurantoin (96.4%), norflaxocin (90.6%), gentamicin (79.6%) and ciprofloxacin were recorded (p<0.001). Multiple antimicrobial resistances of 74.6% and increased resistance rates to all antimicrobials except ciprofloxacin were also recorded.
E. coli isolates showed high rates of resistance to erythromycin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. Nitrofurantoin, norflaxocin, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin are considered appropriate for empirical treatment of E. coli in the study area. Regular monitoring of antimicrobial susceptibility is recommended.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mulugeta Kibret, Aug 13, 2015
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ABSTRACT: The first arrival of a sizable shipment of penicillin at the North African Theatre of Operations for USA military use in 1943 was a landmark that turned a new chapter of antibiotic use in Africa. Over the past decade the expansion of resources and the technological advances have meant that much larger quantities of drugs are available in developing countries than ever before. As a result, many more individuals are receiving necessary treatment or therapy than just ten years ago. This very welcome event is accompanied by the terrible irony that increases in drug availability and use can promote drug resistance and render the same life-saving drugs ineffective. The study focused on bacterial pathogens. One hundred and three relevant literatures were identified from the PubMed online database. The coverage included research articles concerning antimicrobial resistance involving subjects of an African country. Resistant bacteria are on a war path and evidently have acquired an edge over us. Our actions are evidently fuelling the resistance. The indiscriminate use of antibiotics in humans and livestock, wrong and substandard prescriptions by unqualified 'medical personnel' together with poor diagnosis or lack of it are all adding fuel to the already fired train of resistant microbes. To win the war and turn tables as we did with the discovery of penicillin and other antimicrobials in the 1940s, then we must all act now. Antimicrobial stewardship programs-Education, training of laboratory personnel and investment in laboratory infrastructure development are desirable in these situations.07/2012; 22(2):135-43.
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ABSTRACT: Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major public health concern in Sudan and many countries, causing failure in treatment with consequent huge health burden. To determine the prevalence and susceptibility of MDR E. coli isolated from patients in hospitals at Khartoum State. Between May to August 2011, E. coli (n = 232) isolated from clinical specimens, identified, tested their antimicrobials susceptibility and screened for extend spectrum â-lactamase production as per standard methods. Of the 232 E. coli isolates, the majority were from urine (65.1%). MDR E. coli were present in 214 (92.2%). Of these, the resistance rates were recorded to: amoxicillin 97.7%, cefuroxime 92.5%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 88.3%, tetracycline 77.1%, nalidixic acid 72%, ceftriaxone 64%, ciprofloxacin 58.4%, ofloxacin 55.1%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 50.4%, ceftazidime, gentamicin 35% each, nitrofurantoin 22.4%, chloramphenicol, tobramicin 18.2% each and amikacin 1.9%. Overall MDR E. coli, 53.3% were resistant to > 7 antimicrobial agents and ESBL was detected in 32.7%. Isolates from males were more resistant than those from females (p < 0.05). Drug-resistance surveillance and epidemiological analysis of patient data is need periodically and can be informative for appropriate management of antimicrobial resistance.African Health Sciences 09/2012; 12(3):368-75. DOI:10.4314/ahs.v12i3.19 · 0.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli has tremendously increased worldwide and it is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality associated with hospital-acquired infections. This could be attributed to association of multi drug resistance in ESBL producing isolates. The present study was aimed to determine the antimicrobial sensitivity profile of ESBL producing E. coli isolates from various clinical samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical samples, which consist of pus, urine, blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), stool, sputum, swabs, and different body fluids, are included in the study. Samples were processed and identified as per routine laboratory protocol. ESBL screening and confirmation along with antimicrobial susceptibility test was done according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. RESULTS Out of 180 third generation cephalosporins resistant E. coli, 100 (55.55%) isolates were ESBL producers showing a greater degree of resistance to antibiotics. CONCLUSION The prevalence of ESBL is increasing day by day in nearly every center of different countries and necessary steps to prevent the spread and emergence of resistance should be taken.Infectious Diseases: Research and Treatment 03/2014; 7:1-8. DOI:10.4137/IDRT.S13820