Article

Comparative analysis of portal cell infiltrates in antimitochondrial autoantibody-positive versus antimitochondrial autoantibody-negative primary biliary cirrhosis

First Hospital, University of Jilin, Changchun, China.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.19). 05/2012; 55(5):1495-506. DOI: 10.1002/hep.25511
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Substantial evidence supports dysregulated B-cell immune responses in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), including the presence of serum antimitochondrial antibodies (AMAs). However, recent reports from murine models of PBC suggest that B cells may also provide regulatory function, and indeed the absence of B cells in such models leads to exacerbation of disease. The vast majority of patients with PBC have readily detectable AMAs, but a minority (<5%) are AMA negative (AMA(-)), even with recombinant diagnostic technology. This issue prompted us to examine the nature of B-cell infiltrates surrounding the portal areas in AMA-positive (AMA(+)) and AMA(-) patients, because they display indistinguishable clinical features. Of importance was the finding that the degree of bile duct damage around the portal areas was significantly milder in AMA(+) PBC than those observed in AMA(-) PBC patients. The portal areas from AMA(-) patients had a significant increase of cluster of differentiation (CD)5(+) cells infiltrating the ductal regions, and the levels of B-cell infiltrates were worse in the early phase of bile duct damage. The frequency of positive portal areas and the magnitude of CD5(+) and CD20(+) cellular infiltrates within areas of ductal invasion is associated with the first evidence of damage of biliary duct epithelia, but becomes reduced in the ductopenia stage, with the exception of CD5(+) cells, which remain sustained and predominate over CD20(+) cells. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a putative role of B-cell autoimmunity in regulating the portal destruction characteristic of PBC.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Ross Coppel, Jul 02, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
201 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is a progressive autoimmune liver disease of unknown etiology that affects almost exclusively women. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is currently the only approved drug by Food and Drug Administration for patients with PBC. Although the precise pathogenesis of PBC remains unclear, it has been postulated that many cell populations, including B cells, are involved in the ongoing inflammatory process, which implicates, not surprisingly, a potential therapeutic target of depleting B cell to treat this disorder. Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody that has been approved for the treatment of lymphoma and some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Whether it is effective in the treatment of PBC has not been evaluated. Recently, Tsuda et al([1]) demonstrated that B cell depletion with rituximab significantly reduced the number of anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA)-producing B cells, AMA titers, the plasma levels of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM and IgG) as well as serum alkaline phosphatase, and it was well tolerated by all the treated patients with no serious adverse events. This observation provides a novel treatment option for the patients with PBC who have incomplete response to UDCA.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 08/2012; 18(30):3938-40. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i30.3938 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the presence of serum autoantibodies and chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis. The pathogenesis of PBC involves environmental factors, genetic predisposition and loss of immune tolerance. In recent years, it has become univocally accepted that an inappropriately activated immune response is one of the most important factors in PBC. In this study, the role of autoimmunity in PBC is summarized and a feasible research orientation is recommended.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 12/2012; 18(48):7141-8. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v18.i48.7141 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases arise as a consequence of complex interactions of environmental factors with genetic traits. Although specific allelic variations cluster in predisposed individuals and promote the generation and/or expansion of autoreactive T and B lymphocytes, autoimmunity appears in various disease phenotypes and localizes to diverging tissues. Furthermore, the discovery that allelic variations within genes encoding components of the innate immune system drive self-reactive immune responses as well, led to the distinction of immune responses against host tissues into autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. In both categories of disorders, different pathogenic mechanisms and/or subsequent orders of tissue assaults may underlie the target cell specificity of the respective autoimmune attack. Furthermore, the transition from the initial tissue assault to the development of full-blown disease is likely driven by several factors. Thus, the development of specific forms of autoimmunity and autoinflammation reflects a multi-factorial process. The delineation of the specific factors involved in the pathogenic process is hampered by the fact that certain symptoms are assembled under the umbrella of a specific disease, although they might originate from diverging pathogenic pathways. These multi-factorial triggers and pathogenic pathways may also explain the inter-individual divergent courses and outcomes of diseases among humans. Here, we will discuss the impact of different environmental factors in general and microbial pathogens in particular on the regulation/expression of genes encoded within susceptibility alleles, and its consequences on subsequent autoimmune and/or autoinflammatory tissue damage utilizing primarily the chronic cholestatic liver disease primary biliary cirrhosis as model.
    Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 02/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00005-013-0216-3 · 2.82 Impact Factor