Two-partner secretion of gram-negative bacteria: a single β-barrel protein enables transport across the outer membrane.
ABSTRACT The mechanisms of protein secretion by pathogenic bacteria remain poorly understood. In gram-negative bacteria, the two-partner secretion pathway exports large, mostly virulence-related "TpsA" proteins across the outer membrane via their dedicated "TpsB" transporters. TpsB transporters belong to the ubiquitous Omp85 superfamily, whose members are involved in protein translocation across, or integration into, cellular membranes. The filamentous hemagglutinin/FhaC pair of Bordetella pertussis is a model two-partner secretion system. We have reconstituted the TpsB transporter FhaC into proteoliposomes and demonstrate that FhaC is the sole outer membrane protein required for translocation of its cognate TpsA protein. This is the first in vitro system for analyzing protein secretion across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Our data also provide clear evidence for the protein translocation function of Omp85 transporters.
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ABSTRACT: FhaC is an outer membrane transporter from Bordetella pertussis belonging to the two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway with its primary role being the secretion of the virulence factor filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA). FhaC serves as a model transporter of the TPS pathway and significant work has been done to characterize the role of FhaC in FHA secretion. Recent studies characterized interactions between FHA and the POTRA domains of FhaC, suggesting that secretion may involve a successive translocation mechanism mediated by β-augmentation and/or electrostatic interactions. Moreover, it was also shown that reconstituted FhaC is necessary and sufficient to transport FHA into proteoliposomes. While the crystal structure of FhaC clearly suggests a role in transport, the putative transport pore is plugged by an N-terminal α-helix (H1 helix) that occludes access by FHA. Therefore, it has been proposed that the H1 helix must be expelled from the pore in order for secretion of FHA to occur. However, this has yet to be shown experimentally. In this issue of Molecular Microbiology, Guérin et al. report the first direct experimental evidence to show that the FhaC H1 helix is quite dynamic and exchanges between closed and open states upon interaction with FHA.Molecular Microbiology 05/2014; · 5.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus invade Gram-negative bacteria in a predatory process requiring Type IV pili (T4P) at a single invasive pole, and also glide on surfaces to locate prey. Ras-like G-protein MglA, working with MglB and RomR in the deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus, regulates adventurous gliding and T4P-mediated social motility at both M. xanthus cell poles. Our bioinformatic analyses suggested that the GTPase activating protein (GAP)-encoding gene mglB was lost in Bdellovibrio, but critical residues for MglABd GTP-binding are conserved. Deletion of mglABd abolished prey-invasion, but not gliding, and reduced T4P formation. MglABd interacted with a previously uncharacterised tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain protein Bd2492, which we show localises at the single invasive pole and is required for predation. Bd2492 and RomR also interacted with cyclic-di-GMP-binding receptor CdgA, required for rapid prey-invasion. Bd2492, RomRBd and CdgA localize to the invasive pole and may facilitate MglA-docking. Bd2492 was encoded from an operon encoding a TamAB-like secretion system. The TamA protein and RomR were found, by gene deletion tests, to be essential for viability in both predatory and non-predatory modes. Control proteins, which regulate bipolar T4P-mediated social motility in swarming groups of deltaproteobacteria, have adapted in evolution to regulate the anti-social process of unipolar prey-invasion in the "lone-hunter" Bdellovibrio. Thus GTP-binding proteins and cyclic-di-GMP inputs combine at a regulatory hub, turning on prey-invasion and allowing invasion and killing of bacterial pathogens and consequent predatory growth of Bdellovibrio.PLoS Genetics 04/2014; 10(4):e1004253. · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: FhaC is an integral outer membrane protein of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis that mediates the transport to the cell surface of a major virulence factor, the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin FHA. The FHA/FhaC pair is a prototypic TpsA/TpsB system of the widespread 'Two-Partner Secretion' pathway, dedicated to the transport of long extracellular proteins in various pathogenic and environmental Gram-negative bacteria. FhaC belongs to the ubiquitous Omp85 superfamily of protein transporters. The X-ray structure of FhaC shows that the transmembrane β-barrel channel hypothesized to serve as the FHA-conducting pore is obstructed by two structural elements conserved among TpsB transporters, an N-terminal α helix and an extracellular loop. Here, we provide evidence for conformational dynamics of FhaC related to the secretion mechanism. Using paramagnetic electron resonance, electrophysiology and in vivo approaches, we showed that FhaC exchanges between open and closed conformations. The interaction with its secretory partner FHA alters this distribution of conformations. The open conformation of FhaC implies a large displacement from the channel of the N-terminal 'plug' helix, which remains in the periplasm during FHA secretion. The membrane environment favours the dynamics of the TpsB transporter.Molecular Microbiology 03/2014; · 5.03 Impact Factor