The mechanisms of protein secretion by pathogenic bacteria remain poorly understood. In gram-negative bacteria, the two-partner secretion pathway exports large, mostly virulence-related "TpsA" proteins across the outer membrane via their dedicated "TpsB" transporters. TpsB transporters belong to the ubiquitous Omp85 superfamily, whose members are involved in protein translocation across, or integration into, cellular membranes. The filamentous hemagglutinin/FhaC pair of Bordetella pertussis is a model two-partner secretion system. We have reconstituted the TpsB transporter FhaC into proteoliposomes and demonstrate that FhaC is the sole outer membrane protein required for translocation of its cognate TpsA protein. This is the first in vitro system for analyzing protein secretion across the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. Our data also provide clear evidence for the protein translocation function of Omp85 transporters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microbes have evolved many strategies to adapt to changes in environmental conditions and population structures, including cooperation and competition. One apparently competitive mechanism is contact dependent growth inhibition (CDI). Identified in Escherichia coli, CDI is mediated by Two-Partner Secretion (TPS) pathway proteins, CdiA and CdiB. Upon cell contact, the toxic C-terminus of the TpsA family member CdiA, called the CdiA-CT, inhibits the growth of CDI(-) bacteria. CDI(+) bacteria are protected from autoinhibition by an immunity protein, CdiI. Bioinformatic analyses indicate that CDI systems are widespread amongst α, β, and γ proteobacteria and that the CdiA-CTs and CdiI proteins are highly variable. CdiI proteins protect against CDI in an allele-specific manner. Here we identify predicted CDI system-encoding loci in species of Burkholderia, Ralstonia and Cupriavidus, named bcpAIOB, that are distinguished from previously-described CDI systems by gene order and the presence of a small ORF, bcpO, located 5' to the gene encoding the TpsB family member. A requirement for bcpO in function of BcpA (the TpsA family member) was demonstrated, indicating that bcpAIOB define a novel class of TPS system. Using fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, we show that these genes are expressed in a probabilistic manner during culture of Burkholderia thailandensis in liquid medium. The bcpAIOB genes and extracellular DNA were required for autoaggregation and adherence to an abiotic surface, suggesting that CDI is required for biofilm formation, an activity not previously attributed to CDI. By contrast to what has been observed in E. coli, the B. thailandensis bcpAIOB genes only mediated interbacterial competition on a solid surface. Competition occurred in a defined spatiotemporal manner and was abrogated by allele-specific immunity. Our data indicate that the bcpAIOB genes encode distinct classes of CDI and TPS systems that appear to function in sociomicrobiological community development.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proteins from the Omp85 family have roles in membrane biogenesis, and the archetypal protein of this family is the bacterial outer membrane protein BamA. Through evolution, BamA has acquired membrane protein partner subunits, but distinct partner subunits are evident in the various bacterial lineages. As a result, experimental work on several species of bacteria has revealed varietal forms of the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM complex). This scenario extends even into mitochondria and plastids, organelles of eukaryotic cells that evolved from intracellular bacterial ancestors. In addition to the BAM complex, other molecular machines, namely the two-partner secretion system (TPS) and the translocation and assembly module (the TAM), probably evolved from gene duplication events involving BamA. We discuss what is known about the diverse composition of the BAM complex in various bacterial lineages, and how this diversity impacts on our understanding of the mechanism underlying the assembly of bacterial outer membranes.
Trends in Microbiology 09/2012; 20(12). DOI:10.1016/j.tim.2012.08.006 · 9.19 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The two-partner secretion (TPS) pathway is a branch of type V secretion. TPS systems are dedicated to the secretion across the outer membrane of long proteins that form extended β-helices. They are composed of a 'TpsA' cargo protein and a 'TpsB' transporter, which belongs to the Omp85 superfamily. This basic design can be supplemented by additional components in some TPS systems. X-ray structures are available for the conserved TPS domain of several TpsA proteins and for one TpsB transporter. However, the molecular mechanisms of two-partner secretion remain to be deciphered, and in particular, the specific role(s) of the TPS domain and the conformational dynamics of the TpsB transporter. Deciphering the TPS pathway may reveal functional features of other transporters of the Omp85 superfamily.
Research in Microbiology 03/2013; 164(6). DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2013.03.009 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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