Article

Emotional Priming With Facial Exposures in Euthymic Patients With Bipolar Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
The Journal of nervous and mental disease (Impact Factor: 1.81). 12/2011; 199(12):971-7. DOI: 10.1097/NMD.0b013e3182392903
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT People with bipolar disorder have abnormal emotional processing. We investigated the automatic and controlled emotional processing via a priming paradigm with subliminal and supraliminal facial exposure. We compared 20 euthymic bipolar patients and 20 healthy subjects on their performance in subliminal and supraliminal tasks. Priming tasks consisted of three different primes according to facial emotions (happy, sad, and neutral) followed by a neutral face as a target stimulus. The prime stimuli were presented subliminally (17 msec) or supraliminally (1000 msec). In subliminal tasks, both patients and controls judged the neutral target face as significantly more unpleasant (negative judgment shift) when presented with negative emotion primes compared with positive primes. In supraliminal tasks, bipolar subjects showed significant negative judgment shift, whereas healthy subjects did not. There was a significant group × emotion interaction for the judgment rate in supraliminal tasks. Our finding of persistent affective priming even at conscious awareness may suggest that bipolar patients have impaired cognitive control on emotional processing rather than automatically spreading activation of emotion.

0 Followers
 · 
125 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: An eleven item clinician-administered Mania Rating Scale (MRS) is introduced, and its reliability, validity and sensitivity are examined. There was a high correlation between the scores of two independent clinicians on both the total score (0.93) and the individual item scores (0.66 to 0.92). The MRS score correlated highly with an independent global rating, and with scores of two other mania rating scales administered concurrently. The score also correlated with the number of days of subsequent stay in hospital. It was able to differentiate statistically patients before and after two weeks of treatment and to distinguish levels of severity based on the global rating.
    The British Journal of Psychiatry 12/1978; 133(5):429-35. DOI:10.1192/bjp.133.5.429 · 7.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The affective primacy hypothesis (R. B. Zajonc, 1980) asserts that positive and negative affective reactions can be evoked with minimal stimulus input and virtually no cognitive processing. The present work tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of affective and cognitive priming under extremely brief (suboptimal) and longer (optimal) exposure durations. At suboptimal exposures only affective primes produced significant shifts in Ss' judgments of novel stimuli. These results suggest that when affect is elicited outside of conscious awareness, it is diffuse and nonspecific, and its origin and address are not accessible. Having minimal cognitive participation, such gross and nonspecific affective reactions can therefore be diffused or displaced onto unrelated stimuli. At optimal exposures this pattern of results was reversed such that only cognitive primes produced significant shifts in judgments. Together, these results support the affective primacy hypothesis.
    Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 06/1993; 64(5):723-39. DOI:10.1037//0022-3514.64.5.723 · 5.08 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report four experiments investigating the perception of photographic quality continua of interpolated ('morphed') facial expressions derived from prototypes of the 6 emotions in the Ekman and Friesen (1976) series (happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust and anger). In Experiment 1, morphed images made from all possible pairwise combinations of expressions were presented in random order; subjects identified these as belonging to distinct expression categories corresponding to the prototypes at each end of the relevant continuum. This result was replicated in Experiment 2, which also included morphs made from a prototype with a neutral expression, and allowed 'neutral' as a response category. These findings are inconsistent with the view that facial expressions are recognised by locating them along two underlying dimensions, since such a view predicts that at least some transitions between categories should involve neutral regions or identification as a different emotion. Instead, they suggest that facial expressions of basic emotions are recognised by their fit to discrete categories. Experiment 3 used continua involving 6 emotions to demonstrate best discrimination of pairs of stimuli falling across category boundaries; this provides further evidence of categorical perception of facial expressions of emotion. However, in both Experiment 1 and Experiment 2, reaction time data showed that increasing distance from the prototype had a definite cost on ability to identify emotion in the resulting morphed face. Moreover, Experiment 4 showed that subjects had some insight into which emotions were blended to create specific morphed images. Hence, categorical perception effects were found even though subjects were sensitive to physical properties of these morphed facial expressions. We suggest that rapid classification of prototypes and better across boundary discriminability reflect the underlying organisation of human categorisation abilities.
    Cognition 07/1997; 63(3):271-313. DOI:10.1016/S0010-0277(97)00003-6 · 3.63 Impact Factor