Cognitive Vulnerability in Moderate, Mild, and Low Seasonality
ABSTRACT This study examined the association between cognitive vulnerability factors and seasonality. Students (N = 88), classified based on the Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire as experiencing moderate (n = 26) or mild (n = 32) seasonality, and nondepressed, low-seasonality controls (n = 30) completed explicit (i.e., dysfunctional attitudes, automatic negative thoughts, seasonal attitudes, and rumination) and implicit (i.e., implicit associations test) measures of cognitive vulnerability at one winter and one nonwinter assessment. Relative to low- and mild-seasonality participants, moderate-seasonality participants endorsed more automatic thoughts and rumination in winter and more dysfunctional attitudes across both seasons. Moderate- and mild-seasonality participants endorsed more maladaptive seasonal attitudes than did low-seasonality participants. All groups demonstrated increased dysfunctional attitudes, automatic thoughts, and rumination and stronger implicit associations about light and dark during the winter. The findings support a possible cognitive mechanism of winter depression onset and/or maintenance unique to individuals with moderate, as opposed to mild, seasonality.
SourceAvailable from: Kathryn A Roecklein[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Unhelpful sleep-related cognitions play an important role in insomnia and major depressive disorder, but their role in seasonal affective disorder has not yet been explored. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if individuals with seasonal affective disorder (SAD) have sleep-related cognitions similar to those with primary insomnia, and those with insomnia related to comorbid nonseasonal depression. METHODS: Participants (n=147) completed the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep 16-item scale (DBAS-16) and the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Seasonal Affective Disorder Version (SIGH-SAD), which assesses self reported sleep problems including early, middle, or late insomnia, and hypersomnia in the previous week. All participants were assessed in winter, and during an episode for those with a depressive disorder. RESULTS: Individuals with SAD were more likely to report hypersomnia on the SIGH-SAD, as well as a combined presentation of hypersomnia and insomnia on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The SAD group reported DBAS-16 scores in the range associated with clinical sleep disturbance, and DBAS-16 scores were most strongly associated with reports of early insomnia, suggesting circadian misalignment. LIMITATIONS: Limitations include the self-report nature of the SIGH-SAD instrument on which insomnia and hypersomnia reports were based. CONCLUSIONS: Future work could employ sleep- or chronobiological-focused interventions to improve clinical response in SAD.Journal of Affective Disorders 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.04.041 · 3.76 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is assumed that there is a relation between light exposure and delirium incidence. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of prehospital light exposure on the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired delirium. Data from 3 ICUs in the Netherlands were analyzed retrospectively. Delirium was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU. Daily light intensity data were obtained from meteorological stations in the vicinity of the 3 hospitals. The association between light intensity and delirium incidence was analyzed using logistic regression analysis adjusting for known covariates for delirium. Data of 3198 patients, aged (mean ± SD) 61.9 ± 15.3 years with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 16.4 ± 6.6 were analyzed. Delirium incidence was 31.2% and did not vary significantly throughout the year. Twenty-eight-day preadmission photoperiod was highest in spring and lowest in winter; however, no association between light exposure and delirium incidence was found (odds ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.99-1.00; P = 0.72). Furthermore, delirium was significantly associated with age, infection, use of sedatives, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and diagnosis of neurological disease or trauma. The incidence of delirium does not differ per season and prior sunlight exposure does not play a role of importance in the development of ICU-acquired delirium.Journal of critical care 11/2013; 29(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jcrc.2013.10.027 · 2.13 Impact Factor