The Rhode Island (RI) Intensive Care Unit (ICU) Collaborative was designed to improve patient safety and clinical outcomes in adult ICUs through a unit-based patient safety program and evidenced-based practices. Few studies have shown how to draw on a strong safety culture to improve clinical outcomes. A study was conducted to (1) examine the impact of a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire Action Plan (SAQAP) on the 2008 Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) and (2) determine the impact of an SAQAP on ICU central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSIs) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates.
The SAQ was administered at 23 ICUs in 11 hospitals in fall 2007 and 2008. Units were surveyed as to whether they completed an SAQAP on the basis of 2007 SAQ results. Annual rates of infection were submitted as unadjusted monthly CLABSI infections per 1,000 line days and VAP infections per 1,000 ventilator days for 2007 and 2008.
SAQAPs were completed on 9 (39%) of the 23 units. Units that developed SAQAPs demonstrated higher improvement rates in all domains of the SAQ except working conditions. Improvements were close to statistical significance for teamwork climate (+18.4% in SAQAP units versus -6.4%, p = .07) and job satisfaction (+25.9% increase in SAQAP units versus +7.3%, p = .07). Units with SAQAPs decreased the CLABSI rates by 10.2% in 2008 compared with 2007, while those without SAQAP had a 2.2% decrease in rates (p = .59). Similarly, VAP rates decreased by 15.2% in SAQAP units, while VAP rates increased by 4.8% in units without SAQAP (p = .39).
Teams that developed SAQAPs improved their unit culture and clinical outcomes. An active, targeted intervention in culture can translate into improved outcomes for patients.
"A growing number of studies report on their value and use, both in the
US and internationally [5,6]. A recent study suggested that improvements in clinical outcomes
correlated positively with improvement in safety culture as measured by Safety
Attitude Questionnaire . However, researchers have noted the need for more standardized use of
terms and a greater understanding of how safety culture as measured is related to
other features of healthcare as well as the need to develop theoretical models to
explain the influence of culture on patient safety outcomes [8,9]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A Swedish version of the USA Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture" (S-HSOPSC) was developed to be used in both hospitals and primary care. Two new dimensions with two and four questions each were added as well as one outcome measure. This paper describes this Swedish version and an assessment of its psychometric properties which were tested on a large sample of responses from personnel in both hospital and primary care.
The questionnaire was mainly administered in web form and 84215 forms were returned (response rate 60%) between 2009 and 2011. Eleven per cent of the responses came from primary care workers and 46% from hospital care workers. The psychometric properties were analyzed using both the total sample and the hospital and primary care subsamples by assessment of construct validity and internal consistency. Construct validity was assessed by confirmatory (CFA) and exploratory factor (EFA) analyses and internal consistency was established by Cronbachs's alpha.
CFA of the total, hospital and primary care samples generally showed a good fit while the EFA pointed towards a 9-factor model in all samples instead of the 14-dimension S-HSOPSC instrument. Internal consistency was acceptable with Cronbach's alpha values above 0.7 in a major part of the dimensions.
The S-HSOPSC, consisting of 14 dimensions, 48 items and 3 single-item outcome measures, is used both in hospitals and in primary care settings in Sweden for different purposes. This version of the original American instrument has acceptable construct validity and internal consistency when tested on large datasets of first-time responders from both hospitals and primary care centres. One common instrument for measurements of patient safety culture in both hospitals and primary care settings is an advantage since it enables comparisons between sectors and assessments of national patient safety improvement programs. Future research into this version of the instrument includes comparing results from patient safety culture measurements with other outcomes in relation to safety improvement strategies.
BMC Health Services Research 08/2013; 13(1):332. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-332 · 1.71 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Improving the quality and safety of intensive care unit (ICU) care in the United States is a significant challenge for the future. Obtaining improvement in systems of care is difficult given the reactionary mode physicians tend to enter when dealing with moment-to-moment crises. It will be important to implement quality and safety measures that are already supported by evidence. Improvement of device safety will be critical to reducing the large number of device-related complications that occur in US ICUs. Prospective collection of adverse events with rigorous analysis will be important to allow systematic errors to be exposed and corrected.
Surgical Clinics of North America 12/2012; 92(6):1369-86. DOI:10.1016/j.suc.2012.08.007 · 1.88 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background Workplace safety culture is a crucial ingredient in patients' outcomes and is increasingly being explored as a guide for quality improvement efforts. Objectives To establish a baseline understanding of the safety culture in Australian intensive care units. Methods In a nationwide study of physicians and nurses in 10 Australian intensive care units, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire intensive care unit version was used to measure safety culture. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the mean scores for the 6 subscales of the questionnaire, and generalized-estimation-equations models were used to test the hypotheses that safety culture differed between physicians and nurses and between nurse leaders and bedside nurses. Results A total of 672 responses (50.6% response rate) were received: 513 (76.3%) from nurses, 89 (13.2%) from physicians, and 70 (10.4%) from respondents who did not specify their professional group. Ratings were highest for teamwork climate and lowest for perceptions of hospital management and working conditions. Four subscales, job satisfaction, teamwork climate, safety climate, and working conditions, were rated significantly higher by physicians than by nurses. Two subscales, working conditions and perceptions of hospital management, were rated significantly lower by nurse leaders than by bedside nurses. Conclusions Measuring the baseline safety culture of an intensive care unit allows leaders to implement targeted strategies to improve specific dimensions of safety culture. These strategies ultimately may improve the working conditions of staff and the care that patients receive. (American Journal of Critical Care. 2013;22:93-103).
American Journal of Critical Care 03/2013; 22(2):93-102. DOI:10.4037/ajcc2013722 · 2.12 Impact Factor
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