Effect of glutamate and blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate on neurological outcome and pathohistology of the hippocampus after traumatic brain injury in rats.
ABSTRACT Decreasing blood glutamate concentrations after traumatic brain injury accelerates brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, leading to improved neurologic outcomes. The authors hypothesize that treatment with blood glutamate scavengers should reduce neuronal cell loss, whereas administration of glutamate should worsen outcomes. The authors performed histologic studies of neuronal survival in the rat hippocampus after traumatic brain injury and treatment with blood glutamate scavengers.
Traumatic brain injury was induced on anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats by a standardized weight drop. Intravenous treatment groups included saline (control), oxaloacetate, pyruvate, and glutamate. Neurologic outcome was assessed using a Neurological Severity Score at 1 h, and 1, 2, 7, 14, 21, 28 days. Blood glutamate was determined at baseline and 90 min. Four weeks after traumatic brain injury, a histologic analysis of surviving neurons was performed.
Oxaloacetate and pyruvate treatment groups demonstrated increased neuronal survival (oxaloacetate 2,200 ± 37, pyruvate 2,108 ± 137 vs. control 1,978 ± 46, P < 0.001, mean ± SD). Glutamate treatment revealed decreased neuronal survival (1,715 ± 48, P < 0.001). Treatment groups demonstrated favorable neurologic outcomes at 24 and 48 h (Neurological Severity Score at 24 and 48 h: 5.5 (1-8.25), 5 (1.75-7.25), P = 0.02 and 3(1-6.5), 4 (1.75-4.5), P = 0.027, median ± corresponding interquartile range). Blood glutamate concentrations were decreased in the oxaloacetate and pyruvate treatment groups. Administration of oxaloacetate and pyruvate was not shown to have any adverse effects.
The authors demonstrate that the blood glutamate scavengers oxaloacetate and pyruvate provide neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury, expressed both by reduced neuronal loss in the hippocampus and improved neurologic outcomes. The findings of this study may bring about new therapeutic possibilities in a variety of clinical settings.
- SourceAvailable from: Akiva Leibowitz[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brain insults are characterized by a multitude of complex processes, of which glutamate release plays a major role. Deleterious excess of glutamate in the brain's extracellular fluids stimulates glutamate receptors, which in turn lead to cell swelling, apoptosis, and neuronal death. These exacerbate neurological outcome. Approaches aimed at antagonizing the astrocytic and glial glutamate receptors have failed to demonstrate clinical benefit. Alternatively, eliminating excess glutamate from brain interstitial fluids by making use of the naturally occurring brain-to-blood glutamate efflux has been shown to be effective in various animal studies. This is facilitated by gradient driven transport across brain capillary endothelial glutamate transporters. Blood glutamate scavengers enhance this naturally occurring mechanism by reducing the blood glutamate concentration, thus increasing the rate at which excess glutamate is cleared. Blood glutamate scavenging is achieved by several mechanisms including: catalyzation of the enzymatic process involved in glutamate metabolism, redistribution of glutamate into tissue, and acute stress response. Regardless of the mechanism involved, decreased blood glutamate concentration is associated with improved neurological outcome. This review focuses on the physiological, mechanistic and clinical roles of blood glutamate scavenging, particularly in the context of acute and chronic CNS injury. We discuss the details of brain-to-blood glutamate efflux, auto-regulation mechanisms of blood glutamate, natural and exogenous blood glutamate scavenging systems, and redistribution of glutamate. We then propose different applied methodologies to reduce blood and brain glutamate concentrations and discuss the neuroprotective role of blood glutamate scavenging.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(8):10041-66. · 2.46 Impact Factor