Nutrigenomics and Personalized Diets: What Will They Mean for Food?

Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Review of Food Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 6.29). 04/2011; 2(1):97-123. DOI: 10.1146/
Source: PubMed


The modern food system feeds six billion people with remarkable diversity, safety, and nutrition. Yet, the current rise in diet-related diseases is compromising health and devaluing many aspects of modern agriculture. Steps to increase the nutritional quality of individual foods will assist in personalizing health and in guiding individuals to achieve superior health. Nutrigenomics is the scientific field of the genetic basis for varying susceptibilities to disease and the diverse responses to foods. Although some of these genetic determinants will be simple and amenable to personal genotyping as the means to predict health, in practice most will not. As a result, genotyping will not be the secret to personalizing diet and health. Human assessment technologies from imaging to proteomics and metabolomics are providing tools to both understand and accurately assess the nutritional phenotype of individuals. The business models are also emerging to bring these assessment capabilities to industrial practice, in which consumers will know more about their personal health and seek personal solutions.

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    • "medical nutrition addressing medical conditions [17]. The analysis of the food safety, quality and authenticity [18] on the one hand and its effects on (personal) human health on the other hand requires a multidisciplinary, comprehensive, systems-biology approach based on latest genomics technologies such as (epi)genetics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics [19] [20]. As outlined in both presentations, not only the human host but also its microbiome can be strongly affected by nutrition factors. "
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    Proteomics 09/2013; 13(17):2537-41. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201370144 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Besides the concept of biological sample in omics technology, already elucidated by Morrison et al. (2006), the same high-throughput analysis can be used in both food science and nutrition science. In human nutrition, genomics (the comprehensive analysis of DNA structure and function) is the scientific field of the genetic basis for the diverse responses to foods (and not the secret to personalizing diet and health; German et al. 2011); in food science it is the opportunity for improving our understanding of the history of plant domestication and to accelerate crop improvement (Morrell et al. 2011). Transcriptomics allows to evidence the modulation of the global gene expression profile by different nutrients, correlating it to disease prevention (Bordoni et al. 2007), and to design microbial mitigation strategies for ready-toeat food products (Soni et al. 2011). "
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    Genes & Nutrition 08/2012; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s12263-012-0310-x · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Marked advances were made over the last decade in deciphering the molecular mechanisms on how external, nutritional factors can impact on the regulation of genes and ultimately their function without modification of the genetic code. This field of nutrigenomic research is literally exploding. With the understanding of epigenetic control mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone acetylation, methylation or phosphorylation, as well as the posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression via non-coding microRNA, many different experimental and analytic approaches were possible to elucidate how varying nutritional support might impact on specific functions, with short- and potently long-term effects. This review highlights the major principles of epigenetic control mechanisms and their link to particular nutritional influences. Epidemiological data, such as the Dutch famine studies, suggest that targeted nutritional intervention might be causative for long-term effects on health, such as the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome in this cohort. However, to date most of the knowledge comes from experimental and animal data, which cannot be easily transferred to human situations. It is anticipated that within the next few years, major advances will be made to translate this knowledge of nutritional intervention on gene regulation and expression into health preventive programs.
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