Nutrigenomics and Personalized Diets: What Will They Mean for Food?

Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, California 95616, USA.
Review of Food Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 6.29). 04/2011; 2(1):97-123. DOI: 10.1146/
Source: PubMed


The modern food system feeds six billion people with remarkable diversity, safety, and nutrition. Yet, the current rise in diet-related diseases is compromising health and devaluing many aspects of modern agriculture. Steps to increase the nutritional quality of individual foods will assist in personalizing health and in guiding individuals to achieve superior health. Nutrigenomics is the scientific field of the genetic basis for varying susceptibilities to disease and the diverse responses to foods. Although some of these genetic determinants will be simple and amenable to personal genotyping as the means to predict health, in practice most will not. As a result, genotyping will not be the secret to personalizing diet and health. Human assessment technologies from imaging to proteomics and metabolomics are providing tools to both understand and accurately assess the nutritional phenotype of individuals. The business models are also emerging to bring these assessment capabilities to industrial practice, in which consumers will know more about their personal health and seek personal solutions.

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    • "In the last years, overweight is an emerging challenge for developing countries as well [2]. The growing number of obese people is approaching an epidemiological disaster and calls for the urgent development of means to normalize lipid metabolism, including successes in nutrigenomics, personalized nutrition programs, and the application of specific " fat burners " [3] [4] [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulating data suggest that food supplementation with seaweeds which traditionally are an important part of food culture in South-East Asian countries might lead to essential health benefits. In this short review, we summarize findings from experimental studies on the effects of fucoxanthin (a carotenoid derived from brown seaweeds) on lipid metabolism, adiposity, and related conditions and discuss the possible underlying mechanisms. Supplementation of fucoxanthin or its derivatives consistently attenuated body and visceral fat weight gain, lipid accumulation in the liver, decreases insulin resistance, and improves the plasma lipid profile in rodents fed a high-fat diet. It should however be noted that in diabetic/obese KK-Ay mice with genetically compromised insulin signaling, fucoxanthin might increase the plasma levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. The anti-obesity effects of fucoxanthin are apparently mediated by the hormones leptin and adiponectin through their common target AMK-activated protein kinase, resulting in downregulation of lipogenic enzymes and upregulation of lipolytic enzymes. Fucoxanthin also suppresses adipocyte differentiation and induces the expression of uncoupling proteins in visceral adipose tissue. The results of experimental studies suggest that consumption of fucoxanthin and its derivatives as nutritional supplements is a promising option for prevention and treatment of obesity and a wide variety of related pathologies, including metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease. Yet, clinical trials are warranted to assess a therapeutic value of fucoxanthin. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases 06/2015; 25(10). DOI:10.1016/j.numecd.2015.05.010 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    • "medical nutrition addressing medical conditions [17]. The analysis of the food safety, quality and authenticity [18] on the one hand and its effects on (personal) human health on the other hand requires a multidisciplinary, comprehensive, systems-biology approach based on latest genomics technologies such as (epi)genetics, proteomics, metabolomics, and lipidomics [19] [20]. As outlined in both presentations, not only the human host but also its microbiome can be strongly affected by nutrition factors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Model organisms are an important tool for the development and validation of analytical approaches for proteomics and for the study of basic mechanisms of biological processes. The Initiative on Model Organism Proteomics (iMOP) organized a session during the 11th HUPO world congress in Boston in 2012, highlighting the potential of proteomics studies in model organism for the elucidation of important mechanisms regulating the interaction of humans with its environment. Major subjects were the use of model organisms for the study of molecular events triggering the interaction of host organisms with the surrounding microbiota and the elucidation of the complex influence of nutrition on the health of human beings.
    Proteomics 09/2013; 13(17):2537-41. DOI:10.1002/pmic.201370144 · 3.81 Impact Factor
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    • "Besides the concept of biological sample in omics technology, already elucidated by Morrison et al. (2006), the same high-throughput analysis can be used in both food science and nutrition science. In human nutrition, genomics (the comprehensive analysis of DNA structure and function) is the scientific field of the genetic basis for the diverse responses to foods (and not the secret to personalizing diet and health; German et al. 2011); in food science it is the opportunity for improving our understanding of the history of plant domestication and to accelerate crop improvement (Morrell et al. 2011). Transcriptomics allows to evidence the modulation of the global gene expression profile by different nutrients, correlating it to disease prevention (Bordoni et al. 2007), and to design microbial mitigation strategies for ready-toeat food products (Soni et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In the past 20 years, the scientific community has faced a great development in different fields due to the development of high-throughput, omics technologies. Starting from the four major types of omics measurements (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics), a variety of omics subdisciplines (epigenomics, lipidomics, interactomics, metallomics, diseasomics, etc.) has emerged. Thanks to the omics approach, researchers are now facing the possibility of connecting food components, foods, the diet, the individual, the health, and the diseases, but this broad vision needs not only the application of advanced technologies, but mainly the ability of looking at the problem with a different approach, a "foodomics approach". Foodomics is the comprehensive, high-throughput approach for the exploitation of food science in the light of an improvement of human nutrition. Foodomics is a new approach to food and nutrition that studies the food domain as a whole with the nutrition domain to reach the main objective, the optimization of human health and well-being.
    Genes & Nutrition 08/2012; 8(1). DOI:10.1007/s12263-012-0310-x · 2.79 Impact Factor
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