The herbal composition GGEx18 from Laminaria japonica, Rheum palmatum, and Ephedra sinica reduces obesity via skeletal muscle AMPK and PPARα.
ABSTRACT Since AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in skeletal muscle of obese rodents stimulates fatty acid oxidation, it is reasonable to hypothesize that pharmacological activation of AMPK might be of therapeutic benefit in obesity.
To investigate the effects of the traditional Korean anti-obesity drug GGEx18, a mixture of three herbs, Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), on obesity and the involvement of AMPK in this process.
After high fat diet-induced obese mice were treated with GGEx18, we studied the effects of GGEx18 on body weight, fat mass, skeletal muscle lipid accumulation, and the expressions of AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ά (PPARα), and PPARα target genes. The effects of GGEx18 and/or the AMPK inhibitor compound C on lipid accumulation and expression of the above genes were measured in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.
Administration of GGEx18 to obese mice for 9 weeks significantly (p < 0.05) decreased body and adipose tissue weights compared with obese control mice (p < 0.05). Lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle was inhibited by GGEx18. GGEx18 significantly (p < 0.05) increased skeletal muscle mRNA levels of AMPKα1 and AMPKα2 as well as PPARα and its target genes. Consistent with the in vivo data, GGEx18 inhibited lipid accumulation, and similar activation of genes was observed in GGEx18-treated C2C12 cells. However, compound C inhibited these effects in C2C12 cells.
These results suggest that GGEx18 improves obesity through skeletal muscle AMPK and AMPK-stimulated expression of PPARα and its target enzymes for fatty acid oxidation.
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ABSTRACT: Context: The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target genes promotes hepatic oxidation of fatty acids. We hypothesized that Gyeongshingangjeehwan 18 (GGEx18), a mixture of three herbs, Laminaria japonica Aresch (Laminariaceae), Rheum palmatum L. (Polygonaceae), and Ephedra sinica Stapf (Ephedraceae), can regulate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis through PPARα activation in the liver. Objective: To investigate the effects of GGEx18 on obesity-related hepatic steatosis and the responsible mechanism. Materials and methods: The effects of GGEx18 on hepatic lipid accumulation, serum lipid profiles, and the expression of PPARα target genes were studied in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. The effects of GGEx18 on the expression of the PPARα targets and PPARα reporter gene activation were measured in NMu2Li liver cells. Results: GGEx18 administration to obese mice for 9 weeks markedly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic lipid accumulation compared with that in obese control mice. Serum triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were significantly (p <0.05) decreased by GGEx18. GGEx18 treatment increased the messenger RNA levels of PPARα target genes, which are responsible for fatty acid oxidation, in liver tissues. Consistent with the in vivo data, similar activation of genes was observed in GGEx18-treated NMu2Li liver cells. GGEx18 also elevated PPARα reporter gene expression in NMu2Li cells. Discussion and conclusion: These results suggest that GGEx18 prevents hepatic steatosis and hyperlipidemia in high-fat diet-induced obese mice, and this process may be mediated through PPARα activation in the liver.Pharmaceutical Biology 08/2012; 50(10):1261-8. · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts of Ficus benghalensis (prop-root) and Leucaena leucocephala (pod seed) was evaluated by measurement of zone of inhibition against pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Aeromonas hydrophila. Control artificial feed and artificial feed supplemented with 5% powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala were prepared. Juvenile Clarias gariepinus were divided into four groups, acclimatized to laboratory conditions and fed with respective feeds for 20 days prior to the experiment. Immunomodulatory response of supplementary feed was studied by challenging the fish intraperitoneally at weekly intervals, with A. hydrophila. One set of fish, not challenged with A. hydrophila was used as a negative control, to analyze any detrimental effect of supplementary feed, while positive control, comprised of challenged fish fed with non-supplemented feed. Other two groups of fish were challenged with A. hydrophila and fed with respective supplementary feeds. Blood was collected on weekly intervals for four weeks and serum samples were analyzed to evaluate the damage of fish by A. hydrophila through liver function tests. The increase in the levels of Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) and Serum Glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) in positive control group indicated the damage of liver & kidney. However the levels did not change significantly in fish fed with supplementary feeds when compared to negative control group. Nitric oxide, SOD, ALP and lipid peroxidase indicated lower stress levels in these fish compared to positive control. Fish fed with supplementary feed showed increased lysozyme activity and phagocytic index indicating an increase in non-specific immune response. The immunoglobulin levels of in serum were analyzed by homologous sandwich ELISA, which showed higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feed. The current study suggests conclusively, immunostimulatory role of F. benghalensis (prop-roots) and L. leucocephala (pod seed) in C. gariepinus when supplemented in artificial feed.Fish & Shellfish Immunology 10/2013; · 2.96 Impact Factor