Pu-erh tea, green tea, and black tea suppresses hyperlipidemia, hyperleptinemia and fatty acid synthase through activating AMPK in rats fed a high-fructose diet.
ABSTRACT Although green tea extract has been reported to suppress hyperlipidemia, it is unclear how tea extracts prepared from green, oolong, black and pu-erh teas modulate fatty acid synthase expression in rats fed on a high-fructose diet. In this animal study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic and hypoleptinemia effect of these four different tea leaves fed to male Wistar rats for 12 weeks. The results showed that a fructose-rich diet significantly elevated serum triacylglycerols, cholesterol, insulin, and leptin concentrations, as compared with those in the control group. Interestingly, consuming tea leaves for 12 weeks almost normalized the serum triacylglycerols concentrations. Again, rats fed with fructose/green tea and fructose/pu-erh tea showed the greatest reduction in serum TG, cholesterol, insulin and leptin levels. In contrast, serum cholesterol and insulin concentrations of the fructose/oolong tea-fed rats did not normalize. The relative epididymal adipose tissue weight was lower in all rats supplemented with tea leaves than those fed with fructose alone. There was molecular evidence of improved lipid homeostasis according to fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression. Furthermore, supplementation of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves significantly decreased hepatic FAS mRNA and protein levels, and increased AMPK phosphorylation, compared with those of rats fed with fructose only. These findings suggest that the intake of green, black, and pu-erh tea leaves ameliorated the fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and hyperleptinemia state in part through the suppression of FAS protein levels and increased AMPK phosphorylation.
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ABSTRACT: Tea is one of the most widely consumed beverages, second only to water. Many experimental researches in laboratory animals demonstrated that tea components had an inhibitory effect on carcinogenesis at a number of organ sites. The inhibitory effects of tea against carcinogenesis have been attributed to the biologic activities of the polyphenol fraction in tea. This review summarizes experimental data on chemopreventive effects of tea polyphenols in various tumor bioassay systems. Many laboratory studies have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of green tea polyphenols, especially (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), on carcinogenesis in animals models. The majority of these studies have been conducted in mouse skin tumor models, where tea polyphenols were used either as oral feeding in drinking water or in direct local application. Most studies used 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation as the tumor promoter and found anticarcinogenic effects caused by green tea polyphenols. Black tea was also found to be effective, although the activity was weaker than that of green tea in some experiments. Other studies showed that black tea polyphenols-theaflavins exhibited stronger anticarcinogenic activity than did EGCG. Caffeine in tea was also important for tea to prevent tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms of the cancer chemopreventive effects of tea polyphenols are not completely understood. They are most likely related to the mechanisms of biochemical actions of tea polyphenols, which include antioxidative activities, modulation of xenobiotic metabolite enzymes and inhibition of tumor promotion. In addition, we have also proposed that tea polyphenols function as cancer chemopreventive agents through modulation of mitotic signal transduction. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in this modulation need further investigation.Proceedings of the National Science Council, Republic of China. Part B, Life sciences 02/2000; 24(1):1-13.
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ABSTRACT: Sprague-Dawley rats fed a fructose-rich diet exhibit insulin resistance and hypertension, a pathologic status resembling human type II diabetes mellitus, and are an excellent laboratory animal model for research on insulin action and the development of hypertension. Since green tea has numerous beneficial effects, we tested its effect on fructose-fed rats. The present study was therefore designed to further evaluate the effects of green tea supplementation on insulin resistance, hypertension, and the glucose transporters I and IV contents in adipose tissue in the fructose-fed rat model. The animals were divided into three groups and fed for 12 weeks with standard chow and water (control group), a high fructose diet and water (fructose group), or the same high fructose diet, but with green tea (0.5 g of lyophilized green tea powder dissolved in 100 mL of deionized distilled water) instead of water (fructose/green tea group). During the 12 weeks study period, fresh water or green tea was provided daily at 6:00 PM. Blood pressure was measured twice a week, and an oral glucose tolerance test performed after 12 weeks of diet supplementation. At the end of the experiment, plasma triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA), glucose, and insulin were assayed. The epididymal fat pads from all rats in the same group were pooled and adipocytes isolated and tested for insulin binding, glucose uptake, and their content of glucose transporters I (GLUT I) and IV (GLUT IV). Compared to the control group, the fructose group developed fasting hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and elevated blood pressure. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and insulin binding of adipocytes were significantly reduced, and the glucose transporter IV content of adipocytes also decreased. The fructose/green tea group showed improvement in all of these metabolic defects and in insulin resistance and blood pressure. Based on these results, we suggest that the amelioration of insulin resistance by green tea is associated with the increased expression of GLUT IV.European Journal of Nutrition 05/2004; 43(2):116-24. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aromatase enzyme, which converts androstenedione to oestrone, regulates the availability of oestrogen to support the growth of hormone-dependent breast tumours. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of black tea polyphenols on aromatase activities. We found that black tea polyphenols, TF-1, TF-2 and TF-3, significantly inhibited rat ovarian and human placental aromatase activities. In addition, using an in vivo model, these black tea polyphenols also inhibited the proliferation induced by 100 nM dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in MCF-7 cells. Transfection of HER2/neu in MCF-7 breast cancer cells appeared to be associated with an increased resistance of the cells to hormonal therapy. Interestingly, unlike the selective oestrogen receptor modulator (SERM) tamoxifen, black tea polyphenols had antiproliferation effects in breast cancer cells with hormonal resistance. The inhibitory effect of black tea polyphenols on hormone-resistant breast cancer cells suppressed the basal receptor tyrosine phosphorylation in HER2/neu-overexpressing MCF-7 cells. These findings suggest the use of black tea polyphenols may be beneficial in the chemoprevention of hormone-dependent breast tumours and represent a possible remedy to overcome hormonal resistance of hormone-independent breast tumours.European Journal of Cancer 10/2004; 40(14):2165-74. · 5.06 Impact Factor