Article

Neurogenesis in Alzheimer´s disease: a realistic alternative to neuronal degeneration?

Department of Neuroscience, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México 44340.
Current Signal Transduction Therapy (Impact Factor: 0.45). 09/2011; 6(3):314-319. DOI: 10.2174/157436211797483949
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neural stem cells (NSC) are cells that have the capacity to generate multiple types of differentiated brain cells. In conditions in which there is a loss of key functional cell groups, such as neurons, inducing or introducing neural stem cells to replace the function of those cells that were lost during the disease has the greatest potential therapeutic applications. Indeed, the achievement of one of the main objectives of various investigations is already on the horizon for some conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether impaired neurogenesis contributes to neuronal depletion and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results of the different investigations are controversial; some studies have found that neurogenesis is increased in AD brains, but others have not.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Oscar Gonzalez-Perez, Feb 11, 2014
2 Followers
 · 
124 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans.
    01/2012; 2(1):59-69.
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: There are two well-defined neurogenic regions in the adult brain, the subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the lateral wall of the lateral ventricles and, the subgranular zone (SGZ) in the dentate gyrus at the hippocampus. Within these neurogenic regions, there are neural stem cells with astrocytic characteristics, which actively respond to the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF, FGF2 or FGF-β) by increasing their proliferation, survival and differentiation, both in vivo and in vitro. FGF2 binds to fibroblast growth factor receptors 1 to 4 (FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4). Interestingly, these receptors are differentially expressed in neurogenic progenitors. During development, FGFR-1 and FGFR-2 drive oligodendrocytes and motor neuron specification. In particular, FGFR-1 determines oligodendroglial and neuronal cell fate, whereas FGFR-2 is related to oligodendrocyte specification. In the adult SVZ, FGF-2 promotes oligodendrogliogenesis and myelination. FGF-2 deficient mice show a reduction in the number of new neurons in the SGZ, which suggests that FGFR-1 is important for neuronal cell fate in the adult hippocampus. In human brain, FGF-2 appears to be an important component in the anti-depressive effect of drugs. In summary, FGF2 is an important modulator of the cell fate of neural precursor and, promotes oligodendrogenesis. In this review, we describe the expression pattern of FGFR2 and its role in neural precursors derived from the SVZ and the SGZ.
    Current Signal Transduction Therapy 01/2012; 7(1):81-86. DOI:10.2174/157436212799278205 · 0.45 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The great evolutionary biologist Theodosius Dobzhansky once said: "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution". Aging is a complex biological phenomenon and the factors governing the process of aging and age-related diseases are only beginning to be understood, oxidative stress, telomere shortening in DNA components and genetic changes were shown to be the mainly regulating mechanisms during the recent decades. Although a considerable amount of both animal and clinical data that demonstrate the extensive and safe use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is available, the precise summarization and identification of MSCs in age-related diseases remains a challenge. Along this line, this review discussed several typical age-related diseases for which MSCs have been proved to confer protection and put forward a hypothesis for the association among MSCs and age-related diseases from an evolutionary perspective. Above all, we hope further and more research efforts could be aroused to elucidate the role and mechanisms that MSCs involved in the age-related diseases.
    Ageing research reviews 04/2012; 12(1):103-115. DOI:10.1016/j.arr.2012.04.005 · 7.63 Impact Factor
Show more