Neurogenesis in Alzheimer´s disease: a realistic alternative to neuronal degeneration?

Department of Neuroscience, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara. Guadalajara, Jalisco, México 44340.
Current Signal Transduction Therapy (Impact Factor: 0.45). 09/2011; 6(3):314-319. DOI: 10.2174/157436211797483949
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Neural stem cells (NSC) are cells that have the capacity to generate multiple types of differentiated brain cells. In conditions in which there is a loss of key functional cell groups, such as neurons, inducing or introducing neural stem cells to replace the function of those cells that were lost during the disease has the greatest potential therapeutic applications. Indeed, the achievement of one of the main objectives of various investigations is already on the horizon for some conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease. It is not known whether impaired neurogenesis contributes to neuronal depletion and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The results of the different investigations are controversial; some studies have found that neurogenesis is increased in AD brains, but others have not.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The discovery of adult neurogenesis was a turning point in the field of neuroscience. Adult neurogenesis offers an enormous possibility to open a new therapeutic paradigm of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. Recently, several studies suggested that acupuncture may enhance adult neurogenesis. Acupuncture has long been an important treatment for brain diseases in the East Asia. The scientific mechanisms of acupuncture treatment for the diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, have not been clarified yet; however, the neurogenic effect of acupuncture can be a possible reason. Here, we have reviewed the studies on the effect of stimulation at various acupoints for neurogenesis, such as ST36 and GV20. The suggested mechanisms are also discussed including upregulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, basic fibroblast growth factor and neuropeptide Y, and activation of the function of primo vascular system.
    International Review of Neurobiology 01/2013; 111:67-90. DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-411545-3.00004-3 · 2.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In mammals, neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis are germinal processes that occur in the adult brain throughout life. The subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) are the main neurogenic regions in the adult brain. Therein, resides a subpopulation of astrocytes that act as neural stem cells (NSCs). Increasing evidence indicates that pro-inflammatory and other immunological mediators are important regulators of neural precursors into the SVZ and the SGZ. There are a number of inflammatory cytokines that regulate the function of NSCs. Some of the most studied include: interleukin-1, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, insulin-like growth factor-1, growth-regulated oncogene-alpha, leukemia inhibitory factor, cardiotrophin-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha. This plethora of immunological mediators can control the migration, proliferation, quiescence, cell-fate choices and survival of NSCs and their progeny. Thus, systemic or local inflammatory processes represent important regulators of germinal niches in the adult brain. In this review, we summarized the current evidence regarding the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines involved in the regulation of adult NSCs under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Additionally, we described the role of proinflammatory cytokines in neurodegenerative diseases and some therapeutical approaches for the immunomodulation of neural progenitor cells.
    Neuroscience 09/2012; 226C:270-281. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2012.08.053 · 3.33 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: For decades, it was believed that the adult brain was a quiescent organ unable to produce new neurons. At the beginning of the1960's, this dogma was challenged by a small group of neuroscientists. To date, it is well-known that new neurons are generated in the adult brain throughout life. Adult neurogenesis is primary confined to the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the forebrain and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus within the hippocampus. In both the human and the rodent brain, the primary progenitor of adult SVZ is a subpopulation of astrocytes that have stem-cell-like features. The human SVZ possesses a peculiar cell composition and displays important organizational differences when compared to the SVZ of other mammals. Some evidence suggests that the human SVZ may be not only an endogenous source of neural precursor cells for brain repair, but also a source of brain tumors. In this review, we described the cytoarchitecture and cellular composition of the SVZ in the adult human brain. We also discussed some clinical implications of SVZ, such as: stem-cell-based therapies against neurodegenerative diseases and its potential as a source of malignant cells. Understanding the biology of human SVZ and its neural progenitors is one of the crucial steps to develop novel therapies against neurological diseases in humans.
    01/2012; 2(1):59-69.

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 27, 2014