[Prevention of vascular dementia. Evidence and practice].
ABSTRACT During recent years, increasing knowledge has been obtained from clinical studies about the impact that vascular factors have on cognitive function and dementia. Due to demographic reasons and still insufficient control of all vascular risk factors, dementia and associated problems are of increasing importance and will have impact on economical and social development in most countries. The incidence of cognitive impairment and dementia will increase exponentially. As long as no causal therapy for dementia exists, diagnosis and control of risk factors for dementia will need much more attention. Hypertension is not only the most important risk factor for stroke that often leads to dementia but also for silent brain infarcts, which are also associated with onset of dementia. Uncontrolled hypertension is associated with cognitive impairment and sufficient control of hypertension in middle-aged patients can reduce the risk of dementia in older ages. Nevertheless, treatment of all other risk factors (e.g., diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation) is important to reduce the onset of not only vascular but also Alzheimer dementia.