The role of conduct disorder in the association between ADHD and alcohol use (disorder). Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2.
ABSTRACT Much is unclear about the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and alcohol use (disorder). Research on this subject is hindered by the role of conduct disorder (CD). We investigate whether (1) childhood ADHD is associated with higher prevalence and earlier onset of alcohol initiation, regular alcohol use and alcohol use disorder (AUD) (2) CD mediates or modifies this association.
Data were derived from the baseline assessment of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a general population study. ADHD and CD were assessed among respondents aged 18-44 (n=3309). ADHD, CD, and alcohol use (disorder) were assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0.
Lifetime prevalence was 2.9% for ADHD, 5.6% for CD, 94.3% for alcohol initiation, 85.7% for regular alcohol use and 19.0% for AUD; mean ages of onset were 6.7, 11.5, 14.8, 16.7 and 19.2 years, respectively. After correction for gender and age, ADHD was associated with a higher prevalence of all three stages of alcohol use, but not with earlier onset of these stages. The association between ADHD and prevalence of AUD was fully explained by a mediating role of CD. CD did not modify the associations between ADHD and prevalence and onset of alcohol use (disorder).
The mediating role of CD in the association between ADHD and AUD suggests a developmental pathway from ADHD to CD and subsequent AUD. Early interventions in children with ADHD may prevent CD and subsequent onset of AUD.
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ABSTRACT: Background Although a pathway from childhood behavioural disorders to criminal offending is well established, the aetiological processes remain poorly understood. Also, it is not clear if attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is predictive of crime in the absence of comorbid disruptive behaviour disorder (DBD).HypothesisWe examined two research questions: (1) Does ADHD have a unique effect on the risk of criminal offending, independently of DBD? (2) Is the effect of childhood behavioural disorders on criminal offending direct or mediated by adolescent processes related to school experience, substance misuse and peers?Method Structural equation modelling, with latent variables, was applied to longitudinally collected data on 4644 men from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study.ResultsBoth ADHD and DBD separately predicted felony conviction risk. Most of these effects were mediated by adolescent alcohol use and low academic performance. The effect of DBD was stronger and included a direct pathway to criminal offending.Conclusion Findings were more consistent with the life course mediation hypothesis of pathways into crime than the behavioural continuity path, in that the effects of each disorder category were mediated by heavy drinking and educational failure. Preventing these adolescent risk outcomes may be an effective approach to closing pathways to criminal behaviour amongst behaviourally disordered children. However, as there was some evidence of a direct pathway from DBD, effective treatments targeting this disorder are also expected to reduce criminal offending. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health 09/2014; · 1.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research conducted in high-income countries has investigated influences of socioeconomic inequalities on drinking outcomes such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), however, associations between area-level neighborhood social deprivation (NSD) and individual socioeconomic status with these outcomes have not been explored in Brazil. Thus, we investigated the role of these factors on drink-related outcomes in a Brazilian population, attending to male-female variations.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(10):e108355. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies have shown a positive association between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and problematic alcohol use in adults. To what extent this association is explained by genetic and environmental factors is largely unknown.Psychological Medicine 03/2014; · 5.59 Impact Factor