Visualization of Eukaryotic DNA Mismatch Repair Reveals Distinct Recognition and Repair Intermediates

Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0669, USA.
Cell (Impact Factor: 32.24). 11/2011; 147(5):1040-53. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.025
Source: PubMed


DNA mismatch repair (MMR) increases replication fidelity by eliminating mispaired bases resulting from replication errors. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mispairs are primarily detected by the Msh2-Msh6 complex and corrected following recruitment of the Mlh1-Pms1 complex. Here, we visualized functional fluorescent versions of Msh2-Msh6 and Mlh1-Pms1 in living cells. We found that the Msh2-Msh6 complex is an S phase component of replication centers independent of mispaired bases; this localized pool accounted for 10%-15% of MMR in wild-type cells but was essential for MMR in the absence of Exo1. Unexpectedly, Mlh1-Pms1 formed nuclear foci that, although dependent on Msh2-Msh6 for formation, rarely colocalized with Msh2-Msh6 replication-associated foci. Mlh1-Pms1 foci increased when the number of mispaired bases was increased; in contrast, Msh2-Msh6 foci were unaffected. These findings suggest the presence of replication machinery-coupled and -independent pathways for mispair recognition by Msh2-Msh6, which direct formation of superstoichiometric Mlh1-Pms1 foci that represent sites of active MMR.

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    • "This led us to wonder if SWR-C might also modulate Exo1 activity in other DNA transactions. For example, Exo1 can contribute to DNA flap removal during Okazaki fragment maturation of the nascent lagging strand [6], and it can excise replication errors during post-replication mismatch repair (MMR) [7], especially mismatches generated during lagging strand replication by DNA polymerase ␦ (Pol ␦) and Pol ␣ [8] [9]. Furthermore, several studies indicate that nucleosome assembly can regulate mismatch repair at replication forks. "
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    ABSTRACT: The yeast SWR-C chromatin remodeling enzyme catalyzes chromatin incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z which plays roles in transcription, DNA repair, and chromosome segregation. Dynamic incorporation of H2A.Z by SWR-C also enhances the ability of exonuclease I (Exo1) to process DNA ends during repair of double strand breaks. Given that Exo1 also participates in DNA replication and mismatch repair, here we test whether SWR-C influences DNA replication fidelity. We find that inactivation of SWR-C elevates the spontaneous mutation rate of a strain encoding a L612M variant of DNA polymerase (Pol) δ, with a single base mutation signature characteristic of lagging strand replication errors. However, this genomic instability does not solely result from reduced Exo1 function, because single base mutator effects are seen in both Exo1-proficient and Exo1-deficient pol3-L612M swr1Δ strains. The data are consistent with the possibility that incorporation of the H2A.Z variant by SWR-C may stimulate Exo1 activity, as well as enhance the fidelity of replication by Pol δ, the repair of mismatches generated by Pol δ, or both. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    DNA Repair 11/2014; 25C:9-14. DOI:10.1016/j.dnarep.2014.10.010 · 3.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Imaging and analysis of Mlh1-Pms1 GFP foci was carried out as described using two independent strain isolates in each experiment (Hombauer et al., 2011a; Smith et al., 2013). "
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    ABSTRACT: Genetic evidence has implicated multiple pathways in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR) downstream of mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment, including Exonuclease 1 (Exo1)-dependent and -independent pathways. We identified 14 mutations in POL30, which encodes PCNA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, specific to Exo1-independent MMR. The mutations identified affected amino acids at three distinct sites on the PCNA structure. Multiple mutant PCNA proteins had defects either in trimerization and Msh2-Msh6 binding or in activation of the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease that initiates excision during MMR. The latter class of mutations led to hyperaccumulation of repair intermediate Mlh1-Pms1 foci and were enhanced by an msh6 mutation that disrupted the Msh2-Msh6 interaction with PCNA. These results reveal a central role for PCNA in the Exo1-independent MMR pathway and suggest that Msh2-Msh6 localizes PCNA to repair sites after mispair recognition to activate the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease for initiating Exo1-dependent repair or for driving progressive excision in Exo1-independent repair.
    Molecular Cell 06/2014; 55(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.04.034 · 14.02 Impact Factor
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    • "These proteins were confirmed to be enriched at nascent DNA in ESCs by western blot with specific antibodies (Figure 3A). The enrichment on MMR proteins at nascent DNA concurs with previous studies in yeast (26) and the more recent iPOND mass-spectrometry data on HEK-293T cells (10,11). These results suggest that DNA repair systems could be an integral part of the replication machinery across different cell types, although analysis of the mutation frequency (12) and total proteins levels between fibroblasts and ESCs (Supplementary Figure S5) indicate quantitative differences in MMR system activity in ESCs and somatic cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Pluripotency of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is maintained by transcriptional activities and chromatin modifying complexes highly organized within the chromatin. Although much effort has been focused on identifying genome-binding sites, little is known on their dynamic association with chromatin across cell divisions. Here, we used a modified version of the iPOND (isolation of proteins at nascent DNA) technology to identify a large protein network enriched at nascent DNA in ESCs. This comprehensive and unbiased proteomic characterization in ESCs reveals that, in addition to the core replication machinery, proteins relevant for pluripotency of ESCs are present at DNA replication sites. In particular, we show that the chromatin remodeller HDAC1–NuRD complex is enriched at nascent DNA. Interestingly, an acute block of HDAC1 in ESCs leads to increased acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 at nascent DNA together with a concomitant loss of methylation. Consistently, in contrast to what has been described in tumour cell lines, these chromatin marks were found to be stable during cell cycle progression of ESCs. Our results are therefore compatible with a rapid deacetylation-coupled methylation mechanism during the replication of DNA in ESCs that may participate in the preservation of pluripotency of ESCs during replication.
    Nucleic Acids Research 05/2014; 42(11). DOI:10.1093/nar/gku374 · 9.11 Impact Factor
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