Proteolytic processing of Alzheimer’s β-amyloid precursor protein

Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Neurodegenerative Disease and Aging Research, College of Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian, China.
Journal of Neurochemistry (Impact Factor: 4.24). 11/2011; 120 Suppl 1:9-21. DOI: 10.1111/j.1471-4159.2011.07519.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a critical factor in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). APP undergoes post-translational proteolysis/processing to generate the hydrophobic β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides. Deposition of Aβ in the brain, forming oligomeric Aβ and plaques, is identified as one of the key pathological hallmarks of AD. The processing of APP to generate Aβ is executed by β- and γ-secretase and is highly regulated. Aβ toxicity can lead to synaptic dysfunction, neuronal cell death, impaired learning/memory and abnormal behaviors in AD models in vitro and in vivo. Aside from Aβ, proteolytic cleavages of APP can also give rise to the APP intracellular domain, reportedly involved in multiple types of cellular events such as gene transcription and apoptotic cell death. In addition to amyloidogenic processing, APP can also be cleaved by α-secretase to form a soluble or secreted APP ectodomain (sAPP-α) that has been shown to be mostly neuro-protective. In this review, we describe the mechanisms involved in APP metabolism and the likely functions of its various proteolytic products to give a better understanding of the patho/physiological functions of APP.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), is an acute transboundary viral disease of economic importance, affecting goats and sheep. Mass vaccination programs around the world resulted in the decline of PPR outbreaks. Sungri 96 is a live attenuated vaccine, widely used in Northern India against PPR. This vaccine virus, isolated from goat works efficiently both in sheep and goat. Global gene expression changes under PPR vaccine virus infection are not yet well defined. Therefore, in this study we investigated the host-vaccine virus interactions by infecting the peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from goat with PPRV (Sungri 96 vaccine virus), to quantify the global changes in the transcriptomic signature by RNA-sequencing. Viral genome of Sungri 96 vaccine virus was assembled from the PPRV infected transcriptome confirming the infection and demonstrating the feasibility of building a complete non-host genome from the blood transcriptome. Comparison of infected transcriptome with control transcriptome revealed 985 differentially expressed genes. Functional analysis showed enrichment of immune regulatory pathways under PPRV infection. Key genes involved in immune system regulation, spliceosomal and apoptotic pathways were identified to be dysregulated. Network analysis revealed that the protein - protein interaction network among differentially expressed genes is significantly disrupted in infected state. Several genes encoding TFs that govern immune regulatory pathways were identified to co-regulate the differentially expressed genes. These data provide insights into the host - PPRV vaccine virus interactome for the first time. Our findings suggested dysregulation of immune regulatory pathways and genes encoding Transcription Factors (TFs) that govern these pathways in response to viral infection. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13567-015-0153-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
    Veterinary Research 12/2015; 46(1). DOI:10.1186/s13567-015-0153-8 · 3.38 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cognitive decline and disease progression in different neurodegenerative diseases typically involves synaptic dysfunction preceding the neuronal loss. The synaptic dysfunction is suggested to be caused by imbalanced synaptic plasticity i.e. enhanced induction of long-term depression and concomitantly decreased long-term potentiation accompanied with excess stimulation of extrasynaptic N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors due to various disturbances in pre- and postsynaptic sites. Recent research has identified neurodegenerative disease-related changes in protein accumulation and aggregation, gene expression, and protein functions, which may contribute to imbalanced synaptic function. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms regulating synaptic plasticity in health and disease is still lacking and therefore characterization of new candidates involved in these mechanisms is needed. Septins, a highly conserved group of guanosine-5'-triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins, show high neuronal expression and are implicated in the regulation of synaptic vesicle trafficking and neurotransmitter release. In this review, we first summarize the evidence how synaptic dysfunction is related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and Huntington’s disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Then, we discuss different aspects of the potential involvement of the septin family members in the regulation of synaptic function in relation to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases.
    Molecular Neurodegeneration 04/2015; 10. DOI:10.1186/s13024-015-0013-z · 5.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 02/2015; 7:9. DOI:10.3389/fnagi.2015.00009 · 2.84 Impact Factor


Available from