Severe cutaneous adverse reactions to antiepileptic drugs in Asians
ABSTRACT Ethnicity has been shown to be a contributing risk factor regarding antiepileptic drug (AED)-induced severe cutaneous adverse drug reactions (SCARs). To increase the clinical and epidemiologic information in Asians, we investigated the characteristics, outcome, and tolerability toward alternative drugs for AED-induced SCARs.
A total of 154 patients with AED-induced SCARs, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrosis (TEN), and drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), were analyzed for demographic characteristics, causative AEDs, latent period, organ involvement, complications, and mortality. Tolerability toward alternative AEDs was followed for patients after AED-SCARs episodes.
Carbamazepine (CBZ) and phenytoin (PHT) were the most common causative AEDs for SJS/TEN (67.8%) and DRESS (43.6%), respectively. No SCARs case was caused by nonaromatic AEDs, e.g., valproic acid (VPA) and topiramate (TPM). The liver was the most frequently involved internal organ in AED-DRESS, whereas ocular complications were more commonly seen in AED-SJS/TEN. The mortality of AED-SJS/TEN and -DRESS was 6.1% and 7.7%, respectively. By following alternative AED usage of patients after AED-SCARs episodes, we noted that most patients were tolerant of nonaromatic AEDs. One case of oxcarbazepine-SJS had cross-hypersensitivity to lamotrigine (LTG) and further developed into DRESS.
CBZ, PHT, and LTG were the major causative AEDs for SCARs. The mortality of PHT-SCARs was higher than CBZ-SCARs due to complicated comorbidity in patients. Nonaromatic AEDs were safe alternatives for patients with aromatic AED-induced SCARs.
SourceAvailable from: Bahareh Abtahi-Naeini[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Adverse cutaneous drug reactions (ACDRs) are the most commonly reported adverse drug events. The causative drugs and clinical patterns of ACDRs are different in various populations. This study was conducted to identify the clinical patterns, causative drugs and reasons for drug administration in patients hospitalized due to ACDR. This retrospective study was carried out in a referral university hospital, Isfahan, Iran. The medical records of all patients who were hospitalized in the Dermatology Department due to ACDRs were reviewed covering an 8-year period between December 2006 and August 2013. A total number of 282 patients with the mean age of 29.48 ± 21.18 years were hospitalized in this time period, of which 61% were females. The most common clinical patterns regarding the final diagnosis were Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) (32%), exanthematous drug eruptions (24.5%) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) (11%). Anticonvulsants were the most frequently implicated drug group (51.8%) followed by antibiotics (33.7%) and analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (5.7%). The most common cause of drug administration was seizure (30%) and then upper respiratory tract infections (12%). The frequency distribution of clinical types of reactions was different between age groups (P < 0.001). The severe types (SJS, TEN, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms and overlap syndrome) were more frequent in the patients aged ≤50 years old (55.2%) compare to those aged ≤50 years (28%) (P = 0.001). The main causative drugs of ACDRs were anticonvulsants and antibiotics. However, the sever types of reactions were more prevalent.Journal of research in medical sciences 08/2014; 19(8):720-725. · 0.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antiepileptic drug phenytoin can cause cutaneous adverse reactions, ranging from maculopapular exanthema to severe cutaneous adverse reactions, which include drug reactions with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The pharmacogenomic basis of phenytoin-related severe cutaneous adverse reactions remains unknown.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 08/2014; 312(5):525-34. DOI:10.1001/jama.2014.7859 · 30.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: By 2050, for the first time in U.S. history, almost half of elders will be from ethnic minority groups. To meet the needs of this rapidly diversifying population, nurses need to be able to marry transcultural nursing knowledge with gerontological nursing knowledge. The purpose of this article is to propose a new theoretical model for explaining health outcomes and health responses for older individuals in unique ethno-cultural groups and to discuss implications and applications of the model to transcultural gerontological nursing practice and research. The discussion will include (1) an overview of currently available theoretical knowledge in the area, (2) a description of the theory development process, (3) presentation of the proposed ethno-cultural gerontological nursing theoretical model, and (4) discussion of how this model can enhance nursing's contributions to reducing health disparities. This model is presented not as a finished product but as a basis for future discussion and refinement. © The Author(s) 2014.Journal of Transcultural Nursing 12/2014; 26(2). DOI:10.1177/1043659614563615 · 0.83 Impact Factor