Depression, alcohol use and adherence to antiretroviral therapy in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review.
ABSTRACT This study evaluated estimates of depression symptoms, major depression, alcohol use or disorders and their association with ART adherence in sub-Saharan Africa. Studies published between January 1, 2006 and July 31, 2011 that documented rates of these mental health problems were identified through electronic databases. A pooled analysis of 23 studies reporting rates of depression symptoms and six studies reporting rates of major depression indicated a pooled estimate of 31.2% (95% CI 25.5-38.2%, Tau(2) = 0.23) and 18% (95% CI 12.3-25.8%, Tau(2) = 0.19) respectively. Few studies reported rates of alcohol use or disorders, and so we did not pool their estimates. Likelihood of achieving good adherence was 55% lower among those with depression symptoms compared to those without (pooled OR = 0.45 (95% CI 0.31-0.66, Tau(2) = 0.20, P value = 0.000). Interventions to improve mental health of HIV-positive individuals and to support adherence are desperately needed in sub-Saharan Africa.
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ABSTRACT: Despite 10 to% of persons living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa having clinical depression, and the consequences of depression for key public health outcomes (HIV treatment adherence and condom use), depression treatment is rarely integrated into HIV care programs. Task-shifting, protocolized approaches to depression care have been used to overcome severe shortages of mental health specialists in developing countries, but not in sub-Saharan Africa and not with HIV clients. The aims of this trial are to evaluate the implementation outcomes and cost-effectiveness of a task-shifting, protocolized model of antidepressant care for HIV clinics in Uganda.Methods/design: INDEPTH-Uganda is a cluster randomized controlled trial that compares two task-shifting models of depression care - a protocolized model versus a model that relies on the clinical acumen of trained providers to provide depression care in ten public health HIV clinics in Uganda. In addition to data abstracted from routine data collection mechanisms and supervision logs, survey data will be collected from patient and provider longitudinal cohorts; at each site, a random sample of 150 medically stable patients who are depressed according to the PHQ-2 screening will be followed for 12 months, and providers involved in depression care implementation will be followed over 24 months. These data will be used to assess whether the two models differ on implementation outcomes (proportion screened, diagnosed, treated; provider fidelity to model of care), provider adoption of treatment care knowledge and practices, and depression alleviation. A cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted to compare the relative use of resources by each model.Trials. 06/2014; 15(1):248.
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ABSTRACT: : The predictors for seeking alternative therapies for HIV-infection in sub-Saharan Africa are unknown. Among a prospective cohort of 442 HIV-infected patients in Moshi, Tanzania, 249 (56%) sought cure from a newly popularized religious healer in Loliondo (450 km away), and their adherence to antiretrovirals (ARVs) dropped precipitously (odds ratio = 0.20, 95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.44, P < 0.001) after the visit. Compared with those not attending Loliondo, attendees were more likely to have been diagnosed with HIV more remotely (3.8 vs. 3.0 years before, P < 0.001), have taken ARVs longer (3.4 vs. 2.5 years, P < 0.001), have higher median CD4 lymphocyte counts (429 vs. 354 cells/mm, P < 0.001), be wealthier (wealth index: 10.9 vs. 8.8, P = 0.034), and receive care at the private versus the public hospital (P = 0.012). In multivariable logistic regression, only years since the start of ARVs remained significant (odds ratio = 1.49, 95% confidence interval: 1.23 to 1.80). Treatment fatigue may play a role in the lure of alternative healers.JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 03/2014; 65(3):e104-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This article describes the frequency of alcohol use among HIV-positive patients attending clinical care in sub-Saharan Africa and explores the association between alcohol use, medication adherence, and sexual risk behavior. Data from 3538 patients attending an HIV clinic in Kenya, Tanzania, or Namibia were captured through interview and medical record abstraction. Participants were categorized into three drinking categories: nondrinkers, nonharmful drinkers, and harmful/likely dependent drinkers. A proportional odds model was used to identify correlates associated with categories of alcohol use. Overall, 20% of participants reported alcohol use in the past 6 months; 15% were categorized as nonharmful drinkers and 5% as harmful/likely dependent drinkers. Participants who reported missing a dose of their HIV medications [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.67, 2.49]; inconsistent condom use (AOR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.23, 1.79); exchanging sex for food, money, gifts, or a place to stay (AOR: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.06, 2.32); and having a sexually transmitted infection symptom (AOR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.77) were more likely to be categorized in the higher risk drinking categories. This research highlights the need to integrate alcohol screening and counseling into the adherence and risk reduction counseling offered to HIV-positive patients as part of their routine care. Moreover, given the numerous intersections between alcohol and HIV, policies that focus on reducing alcohol consumption and alcohol-related risk behavior should be integrated into HIV prevention, care, and treatment strategies.AIDS Care 04/2014; · 1.60 Impact Factor