A synthetic heparan sulfate oligosaccharide library reveals the novel enzymatic action of D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3a.
ABSTRACT Heparan sulfate (HS) glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotranferases sulfate the C3-hydroxyl group of certain glucosamine residues on heparan sulfate. Six different 3-OST isoforms exist, each of which can sulfate very distinct glucosamine residues within the HS chain. Among these isoforms, 3-OST1 has been shown to play a role in generating ATIII-binding HS anticoagulants whereas 3-OST2, 3-OST3, 3-OST4 and 3OST-6 have been shown to play a vital role in generating gD-binding HS chains that permit the entry of herpes simplex virus type 1 into cells. 3-OST5 has been found to generate both ATIII- and gD-binding HS motifs. Previous studies have examined the substrate specificities of all the 3-OST isoforms using HS polysaccharides. However, very few studies have examined the contribution of the epimer configuration of neighboring uronic acid residues next to the target site to 3-OST action. In this study, we utilized a well-defined synthetic oligosaccharide library to examine the substrate specificity of 3-OST3a and compared it to 3-OST1. We found that both 3-OST1 and 3-OST3a preferentially sulfate the 6-O-sulfated, N-sulfoglucosamine when an adjacent iduronyl residue is located to its reducing side. On the other hand, 2-O-sulfation of this uronyl residue can inhibit the action of 3-OST3a on the target residue. The results reveal novel substrate sites for the enzyme actions of 3-OST3a. It is also evident that both these enzymes have promiscuous and overlapping actions that are differentially regulated by iduronyl 2-O-sulfation.
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ABSTRACT: 3-O-Sulfated glucosaminyl residues are rare constituents of heparan sulfate and are essential for the activity of anticoagulant heparan sulfate. Cellular production of the critical active structure is controlled by the rate-limiting enzyme, heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 (3-OST-1) (EC 188.8.131.52). We have probed the expressed sequence tag data base with the carboxyl-terminal sulfotransferase domain of 3-OST-1 to reveal three novel, incomplete human cDNAs. These were utilized in library screens to isolate full-length cDNAs. Clones corresponding to predominant transcripts were obtained for the 367-, 406-, and 390-amino acid enzymes 3-OST-2, 3-OST-3A, and 3-OST-3B, respectively. These type II integral membrane proteins are comprised of a divergent amino-terminal region and a very homologous carboxyl-terminal sulfotransferase domain of approximately 260 residues. Also recovered were partial length clones for 3-OST-4. Expression of the full-length enzymes confirms the 3-O-sulfation of specific glucosaminyl residues within heparan sulfate (Liu, J., Shworak, N. W., Sinaÿ, P., Schwartz, J. J. Zhang, L., Fritze, L. M. S., and Rosenberg, R. D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 5185-5192). Southern analyses suggest the human 3OST1, 3OST2, and 3OST4 genes, and the corresponding mouse isologs, are single copy. However, 3OST3A and 3OST3B genes are each duplicated in humans and show at least one copy each in mice. Intriguingly, the entire sulfotransferase domain sequence of the 3-OST-3B cDNA (774 base pairs) was 99.2% identical to the same region of 3-OST-3A. Together, these data argue that the structure of this functionally important region is actively maintained by gene conversion between 3OST3A and 3OST3B loci. Interspecific mouse back-cross analysis identified the loci for mouse 3Ost genes and syntenic assignments of corresponding human isologs were confirmed by the identification of mapped sequence-tagged site markers. Northern blot analyses indicate brain exclusive and brain predominant expression of 3-OST-4 and 3-OST-2 transcripts, respectively; whereas, 3-OST-3A and 3-OST-3B isoforms show widespread expression of multiple transcripts. The reiteration and conservation of the 3-OST sulfotransferase domain suggest that this structure is a self-contained functional unit. Moreover, the extensive number of 3OST genes with diverse expression patterns of multiple transcripts suggests that the novel 3-OST enzymes, like 3-OST-1, regulate important biologic properties of heparan sulfate proteoglycans.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):5170-84. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The 3-O-sulfation of glucosamine residues is an important modification during the biosynthesis of heparan sulfate (HS). Our previous studies have led us to purify and molecularly clone the heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase (3-OST-1), which is the key enzyme converting nonanticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSinact) to anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact). In this study, we expressed and characterized the full-length cDNAs of 3-OST-1 homologous genes, designated as 3-OST-2, 3-OST-3A, and 3-OST-3B as described in the accompanying paper (Shworak, N. W., Liu, J., Petros, L. M., Zhang, L., Kobayashi, M., Copeland, N. G., Jenkins, N. A., and Rosenberg, R. D. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 5170-5184). All these cDNAs were successfully expressed in COS-7 cells, and heparan sulfate sulfotransferase activities were found in the cell extracts. We demonstrated that 3-OST-2, 3-OST-3A, and 3-OST-3B are heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferases because the enzymes transfer sulfate from adenosine 3'-phosphophate 5'-phospho-[35S]sulfate ([35S]PAPS) to the 3-OH position of glucosamine. 3-OST-3A and 3-OST-3B sulfate an identical disaccharide. HSact conversion activity in the cell extract transfected by 3-OST-1 was shown to be 300-fold greater than that in the cell extracts transfected by 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-3A, suggesting that 3-OST-2 and 3-OST-3A do not make HSact. The results of the disaccharide analysis of the nitrous acid-degraded [35S]HS suggested that 3-OST-2 transfers sulfate to GlcA2S-GlcNS and IdoA2S-GlcNS; 3-OST-3A transfers sulfate to IdoA2S-GlcNS. Our results demonstrate that the 3-O-sulfation of glucosamine is generated by different isoforms depending on the saccharide structures around the modified glucosamine residue. This discovery has provided evidence for a new cellular mechanism for generating a defined saccharide sequence in structurally complex HS polysaccharide.Journal of Biological Chemistry 03/1999; 274(8):5185-92. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heparan sulfate (HS) is an unbranched chain of repetitive disaccharides, which specifically binds ligands when attached to the cell surface or secreted extracellularly. HS chains contain sulfated domains termed the HS fine structure, which gives HS specific binding affinities for extracellular ligands. HS 3-O-sulfotransferases (3-OST) catalyze the transfer of sulfate groups to the 3-O position of glucosamine residues of HS, a rare, but essential HS chain modification required for HS fine structure. We report here the first characterization and developmental expression analysis of the 3-OST gene family in a vertebrate. There are eight 3-OST genes in zebrafish: seven genes with homology to known 3-OST genes in mouse and human, as well as a novel, 3-OST-7. A phylogenetic comparison of human, mouse, and zebrafish indicates the 3-OST family can be subdivided into two distinct subgroups. We examined the mRNA expression patterns in several tissues/organs throughout early zebrafish development, including early cleavage stages, somites, brain, internal body organ primordial, and pectoral fin development. The 3-OST gene family has both specifically expressed and ubiquitously expressed genes, suggesting in vivo functional differences exist between members of this family.Developmental Dynamics 01/2007; 235(12):3423-31. · 2.59 Impact Factor