Article

Disentangling the relationships between maternal smoking during pregnancy and co-occurring risk factors.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.
Psychological Medicine (Impact Factor: 5.43). 11/2011; 42(7):1547-57. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291711002534
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been studied extensively as a risk factor for adverse offspring outcomes and is known to co-occur with other familial risk factors. Accounting for general familial risk factors has attenuated associations between SDP and adverse offspring outcomes, and identifying these confounds will be crucial to elucidating the relationship between SDP and its psychological correlates.
The current study aimed to disentangle the relationship between maternal SDP and co-occurring risk factors (maternal criminal activity, drug problems, teen pregnancy, educational attainment, and cohabitation at childbirth) using a population-based sample of full- (n=206 313) and half-sister pairs (n=19 363) from Sweden. Logistic regression models estimated the strength of association between SDP and co-occurring risk factors. Bivariate behavioral genetic models estimated the degree to which associations between SDP and co-occurring risk factors are attributable to genetic and environmental factors.
Maternal SDP was associated with an increase in all co-occurring risk factors. Of the variance associated with SDP, 45% was attributed to genetic factors and 53% was attributed to unshared environmental factors. In bivariate models, genetic factors accounted for 21% (non-drug-, non-violence-related crimes) to 35% (drug-related crimes) of the covariance between SDP and co-occurring risk factors. Unshared environmental factors accounted for the remaining covariance.
The genetic factors that influence a woman's criminal behavior, substance abuse and her offspring's rearing environment all influence SDP. Therefore, the intergenerational transmission of genes conferring risk for antisocial behavior and substance misuse may influence the associations between maternal SDP and adverse offspring outcomes.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
159 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy (SDP) has consistently been associated with increased risk of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in offspring, but recent studies indicate that this association might be due to unmeasured familial confounding.
    Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 01/2014; 55(1):61-8. · 5.67 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) has been associated with several psychiatric outcomes in the offspring; studies have questioned whether the associations are causal, however. We analyzed all children born in Sweden between 1983 and 2009 to investigate the effect of SDP on multiple indicators of adverse outcomes in three areas: pregnancy outcomes (birth weight, preterm birth and being born small for gestational age), long-term cognitive abilities (low academic achievement and general cognitive ability) and externalizing behaviors (criminal conviction, violent criminal conviction and drug misuse). SDP was associated with all outcomes. Within-family analyses of the pregnancy outcomes were consistent with a causal interpretation as the associations persisted when siblings discordant for SDP were compared. For the cognitive and externalizing outcomes, the results were not consistent with causal effects; when comparing differentially exposed siblings none of the associations remained significant. In quantitative genetic models genetic factors explained the majority of the associations between SDP and cognitive and externalizing outcomes. The results suggest that the associations between SDP in mothers and cognition and externalizing behaviors in their offspring is primarily due to genetic effects that influence the behaviors in both generations.
    Behavior Genetics 09/2014; 44(5). · 2.84 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background: Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP) is associated with multiple adverse childhood outcomes including externalizing behaviors. However, the association between MSDP and internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in offspring has received less investigation. We aimed to assess the association between MSDP and childhood internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in a very large, well-characterized cohort study. Methods: We assessed the association between MSDP and internalizing behaviors in offspring utilizing information drawn from 90,040 mother-child pairs enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Mothers reported smoking information, including status and frequency of smoking, twice during pregnancy. Mothers also reported their child's internalizing behaviors at 18 months, 36 months, and 5 years. Associations between MSDP and childhood internalizing behaviors, including dose-response and timing of smoking in pregnancy, were assessed at each time point. Results: MSDP was associated with increased internalizing behaviors when offspring were aged 18 months (B = 0.11, P <0.001) and 36 months (B = 0.06, P <0.01), adjusting for numerous potential confounders. Higher rates of smoking (e.g., >20 cigarettes per day) were associated with higher levels of internalizing behaviors. Maternal smoking during early pregnancy appeared to be the critical period for exposure. Conclusions: We found evidence supporting a potential role for MSDP in increasing internalizing (anxiety and depressive) behaviors in offspring. We also found evidence supportive of a possible causal relationship, including dose-dependency and support for a predominant role of early pregnancy exposure. Further investigation utilizing genetically informed designs are warranted to assess this association.
    BMC Medicine 02/2015; 13(1). · 7.28 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
107 Downloads
Available from
May 21, 2014