Hybrid Thoracoabdominal Aneurysm Repair With Antegrade Visceral Debranching From the Ascending Aorta: Concomitant Cardiac Surgery and Stent-Grafting

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Heart and Vascular Institute Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 44195 Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
The Annals of thoracic surgery (Impact Factor: 3.85). 12/2011; 92(6):2275-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2011.06.018
Source: PubMed


Patients with thoracoabdominal aneurysm that require concomitant cardiac surgery present a complex surgical challenge. A staged hybrid technique including combined cardiac surgery and visceral revascularization from the ascending aorta, followed by endovascular aneurysmal exclusion is reported in four patients. No perioperative death and no neurological complications were observed. The surgical technique is described. (Ann Thorac Surg 2011; 92:2275-7) (C) 2011 by The Society of Thoracic Surgeons

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    • "Open repair is currently the standard treatment, and several adjuncts have been implemented to minimize the risk of mortality and morbidity [4] [5] [6] [7]. Alternative operative techniques have been proposed to further reduce the risk and decrease the surgical trauma [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]. Paraplegia remains the most devastating complication and is related to the extent of the aorta covered regardless of the repair technique [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Repair of extensive aortic disease carries a significant risk of death and morbidity, the most feared complication being spinal cord ischaemia. Objectives of this study are to characterize patients, describe repair methods and assess feasibility and safety of hybrid staged repair for treatment of extensive aortic disease. From to 2001 to 2013, 22 patients underwent extensive aortic repair that included a thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) first followed by an open completion repair extending through the visceral and infrarenal aorta for degenerative aneurysm and dissection. At the time of initial repair, all patients were deemed to be at a high risk for conventional open repair and had extensive disease. Indications for open completion included emergency failure of TEVAR (n = 3), early two-stage approach (n = 6) and delayed disease progression after TEVAR (n = 13). The median interval between stages was 6.5 months. The mean age was 56 ± 14 years, 5 patients had connective tissue disorder and the mean maximum aortic diameter was 58 ± 16 mm preoperatively. There was no death or major complication after initial TEVAR, but the operative mortality rate was 9% (n = 2) after the open procedure. One of these patients died from intraoperative myocardial infarction during emergency repair, and the other had disseminated intravascular coagulation during delayed repair for disease progression after TEVAR. Other complications included paralysis in 1 (4.5%), tracheostomy in 2 (9%) and dialysis in 1 (4.5%), and there was 1 reoperation for bleeding (4.5%). The median follow-up was 37 (range 3.3-93) months and there were no late deaths. There were four late reoperations for proximal disease progression leading to Type 1 endoleak (n = 2), Type A dissection (n = 1) and root aneurysm (n = 1). Use of a TEVAR-first approach in combination with a staged open repair is a safe and feasible treatment strategy for repair of extensive aortic disease. A staged hybrid approach to aortic repair in patients at high risk for total aortic replacement may limit morbidity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.
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    ABSTRACT: OPINION STATEMENT: Conventional surgery for thoracic aortic pathology involves replacing the affected segment of aorta with an interposition graft and often requires the use of extracorporeal circulatory support with or without deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. Although operative results have improved consistently over 60 years, patients with extensive aneurysms face a considerable risk with conventional surgery, particularly when burdened with multiple comorbidities. Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) was first performed in 1994 and has become a well-established alternative therapy for many thoracic aortic pathologies. TEVAR is most frequently performed through a small groin incision to access the common femoral artery. Wires and catheters are used to deliver and deploy the stent graft in the thoracic aorta under fluoroscopic control. Occasionally, TEVAR is performed as part of a complex hybrid procedure including one stage of conventional open surgery that may utilize a thoracic incision and cardiopulmonary bypass support. The less invasive nature of TEVAR offers the potential for lower mortality and peri-procedural morbidity. Although long-term results of TEVAR are still being gathered, mid-term results are excellent and most late vascular complications can be treated with additional transcatheter procedures. Recent development of fenestrated and branched stent grafts is expanding the application of endovascular therapies to complex aortic pathologies involving the thoracoabdominal aorta and aortic arch. Although conventional techniques continue to be the gold standard for treatment of ascending aortic pathology, recent reports have proven TEVAR to be a viable alternative in specific situations. Design improvements continue to expand the indications for TEVAR, and technological advancements in the field of imaging facilitate safer and more accurate planning, delivery, and assessment of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms. Hybrid operating rooms provide the optimal environment with state of the art imaging technology for the cardiovascular team to perform TEVAR or alternative hybrid procedures.
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    ABSTRACT: To present a hybrid repair technique that may decrease the morbidity and mortality associated with thoracoabdominal aneurysm (TAAA) repair, especially in high-risk patients. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated for TAAA at a single institution from 2005 to 2010. Nine patients (8 men; mean age 72 years) with Crawford types II or IV TAAAs were treated with a 2-stage hybrid technique consisting of antegrade visceral debranching of the aorta, followed within a month by endovascular deployment of endografts to cover the entire diseased aortic segment. There was no perioperative mortality, paraplegia, or permanent renal failure. Following the debranching procedure, there were 4 cases of transient renal dysfunction, 1 minor stroke (resolved), and 1 low-flow pancreatic fistula that regressed. There were no complications after the endovascular repair. Over a mean follow-up of 28 months (range 8-50), all patients are alive, with good patency of the bypass grafts and endografts. One late type II endoleak is under surveillance. This small series shows that the ascending aorta is a safe location for antegrade visceral debranching, which could facilitate hybrid repair in most cases, especially those patients with advanced lesions of the iliac arteries. More patients and longer follow-up are required to draw definite conclusions for the adoption of this treatment in high-risk patients.
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