Allergenic Lipid Transfer Proteins from Plant-Derived Foods Do Not Immunologically and Clinically Behave Homogeneously: The Kiwifruit LTP as a Model

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 11/2011; 6(11):e27856. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027856
Source: PubMed


Food allergy is increasingly common worldwide. Tools for allergy diagnosis measuring IgE improved much since allergenic molecules and microarrays started to be used. IgE response toward allergens belonging to the same group of molecules has not been comprehensively explored using such approach yet.
Using the model of lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) from plants as allergens, including two new structures, we sought to define how heterogeneous is the behavior of homologous proteins.
Two new allergenic LTPs, Act d 10 and Act c 10, have been identified in green (Actinidia deliciosa) and gold (Actinidia chinensis) kiwifruit (KF), respectively, using clinically characterized allergic patients, and their biochemical features comparatively evaluated by means of amino acid sequence alignments. Along with other five LTPs from peach, mulberry, hazelnut, peanut, mugwort, KF LTPs, preliminary tested positive for IgE, have been immobilized on a microarray, used for IgE testing 1,003 allergic subjects. Comparative analysis has been carried out.
Alignment of Act d 10 primary structure with the other allergenic LTPs shows amino acid identities to be in a narrow range between 40 and 55%, with a number of substitutions making the sequences quite different from each other. Although peach LTP dominates the IgE immune response in terms of prevalence, epitope recognition driven by sequence heterogeneity has been recorded to be distributed in a wide range of behaviors. KF LTPs IgE positive results were obtained in a patient subset IgE positive for the peach LTP. Anyhow, the negative results on homologous molecules allowed us to reintroduce KF in patients' diet.
The biochemical nature of allergenic molecule belonging to a group of homologous ones should not be taken as proof of immunological recognition as well. The availability of panels of homologous molecules to be tested using microarrays is valuable to address the therapeutic intervention.

Download full-text


Available from: Maria Antonietta Ciardiello,
  • Source
    • "Unlike the patients reported by Pastorello et al.,11 our patient had no symptoms with fruits. This discrepancy, however, is in agreement we the findings by Bernardi et al.17 on the great biochemical heterogeneity among LTPs. Our patient was also sensitized to protein Z and beer LTP, major allergens in beer,18 as well as to other proteins present in maize, beer, and wheat flour, that could correspond to other allergens related to food allergy to maize.19 "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We report the case of a snack processor who developed occupational rhinoconjunctivitis due to maize brand exposure during the extrusion process, and who experienced abdominal pain upon drinking beer. The allergens implicated and the cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) from different cereals and peach were investigated. Skin prick tests and specific IgE to cereal flours, pulmonary functions tests and specific conjunctival and inhalation challenges to maize extract were performed. In vitro studies included IgE immunoblotting and ELISA inhibition assays. Skin prick tests with maize flour, maize brand and wheat flour extracts were positive, whereas serum specific IgE was positive only to maize flour. Specific inhalation challenge (SIC) to maize flour did not elicit an asthmatic reaction; however, conjunctival challenge test with the same extract was positive. Patient's serum recognized IgE-binding bands in the maize and beer extracts corresponding to LTPs. In the ELISA inhibition assays, a significant degree of allergenic cross-reactivity was found between maize and beer LTPs, whereas no cross-reactivity was observed between maize LTP and wheat and peach LTPs.
    Allergy, asthma & immunology research 09/2014; 6(5):470-3. DOI:10.4168/aair.2014.6.5.470 · 2.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "These results underline that the concept " one allergen fits all the homologs " , that is sometimes applied [36] [37] [38], may produce some erroneous diagnosis. The comparative study of kiwifruit and peach LTPs [35] clearly indicates that the biochemical grouping of allergens can be misleading in the allergy diagnosis and that an improvement can be obtained by testing every single patient with the most comprehensive panel of available LTPs/allergens. The observation that some subjects have isolated IgE positivity to single LTP/allergens provides useful information on what to exclude but, most importantly, on what to leave in patient's diet. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases are important concern of public health. A reliable diagnosis is of utmost importance for the management of allergic patients both when immunotherapy is planned and when the treatment is essentially based on the avoidance of the allergy source. However, the available diagnostic systems sometimes fail to detect specific IgE antibodies thus impairing the correct diagnosis. The traditional test systems are generally based on the use of protein extracts derived from the allergenic sources whose composition is very variable and cannot be standardized. The development of a new methodology combining the so-called allergenic molecule-based diagnosis with the multiplex microarray technology and allowing the analysis of multiple purified allergens in a single test represents an important improvement in allergy diagnosis. In addition, the biochemical and immunological characterisation of individual allergens has provided new insights into the understanding of allergen-IgE recognition that could be exploited for further improvements of allergy diagnostic tests.
    09/2012; 4:27-33.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In 2010 over 200 articles were published in Clinical and Experimental Allergy including editorials, reviews, opinion articles, letters, book reviews and of course at the heart of the journal, papers containing original data which have moved the field of allergy forward on a number of fronts. For the third year running the editors felt it would be of value to summarize the key messages contained in these papers as a snapshot of where the cutting edge of research into allergic disease is leading. We have broadly followed the sections of the journal, although this year the mechanistic articles are grouped together and the studies involving experimental models of disease are discussed throughout the paper. In the field of asthma and rhinitis phenotypes and biomarkers continue to a major pre-occupation of our authors. There is continued interest in mechanisms of inflammation and disordered lung function with the mouse model of asthma continuing to offer new insights. There is also a steady flow of papers investigating new therapies, including those derived from plants and herbs, although many are mechanistic with too few high quality clinical trials. The mechanisms involved in allergic disease are well covered with many strong papers using clinical material to ask relevant questions. Pro-pre and snybiotics continue to be of major interest to our authors and this remains a controversial and complicated field. The discipline of epidemiology has retained its interest in risk factors for the development of allergic disease with a view to refining and debating the reasons for the allergy epidemic. There is continued interest in the relationship between helminthic disease and allergy with a new twist in 2010 involving studies using infection with helminths as a potential treatment. The genetics of allergic disease continues to be very productive, although the field has moved on from only investigating single nucleotide polymorphisms of candidate genes to Genome Wide Association Studies and an increasing and welcome emphasis on gene-environment interactions. In the field of clinical allergy there is steady flow of papers describing patterns of drug allergy with renewed interest in reactions to contrast media, but food allergy is the major area of interest in this section of the journal. Lastly in the field of allergens there is a growing interest in the role of component resolved diagnosis in improving the diagnosis and management of allergic disease. Another excellent year, full of fascinating and high quality work, which the journal has been proud to bring to the allergy community.
    Clinical & Experimental Allergy 12/2011; 41(12):1690-710. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03892.x · 4.77 Impact Factor
Show more