The Effect of Common Genetic Variation in 11 beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1 on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity and Incident Depression
ABSTRACT Accumulating evidence suggests that hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) is involved in depression. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) converts inert cortisone to active cortisol and is implicated in HPA axis regulation in animal studies. The aim of our study was to identify polymorphisms in 11β-HSD1 gene (HSD11B1) with consistent associations with increased HPA axis activity and relate those polymorphisms to depression.
Twelve single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 11 tagging SNPs, were selected using the HapMap database and genotyped in 4228 participants of the population-based Rotterdam Study. The outcome measures were salivary cortisol levels after awakening, 30 min later, at 1700 h, at bedtime, and plasma levels of androstenedione (in women only). SNPs that were significantly associated with cortisol as well as androstenedione levels were also related to incident depression.
rs11119328 was associated with higher cortisol saliva samples collected at bedtime as well as higher androstenedione levels (P value after correction for multiple testing: 0.01 and 0.04, respectively). Carriers of this polymorphism had an increased risk of an incident depression (hazard ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.59). Two other SNPs, which were in high linkage disequilibrium with rs11119328, were related to higher cortisol levels but not with androstenedione levels.
We identified one SNP, which was associated with increased salivary cortisol levels at nadir as well as higher androstenedione levels. Moreover, this SNP was also associated with a higher risk of an incident depression. This suggests that 11β-HSD1 is implicated in human HPA axis regulation and susceptibility to depression.
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ABSTRACT: Adverse body compositional features and low bone mineral density (BMD) are the characteristic of patients with active Cushing's syndrome (CS). The aim of this study was to evaluate body composition and BMD in women with CS in long-term remission and the influence of polymorphisms in genes affecting glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity on these end-points. This was a cross-sectional, case-controlled study, including 50 women previously treated for CS and 50 age and gender-matched controls. Median (interquartile range) remission time was 13 (5-19) years. Body composition and BMD were measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Five polymorphisms in four genes associated with GC sensitivity were analysed using TaqMan or Sequenom single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping. Patients with CS in remission had increased abdominal fat mass (P<0.01), whereas BMD was not significantly different at any site between patients and controls. In patients, the NR3C1 Bcl1 polymorphism was associated with reduced total (P<0.05) and femur neck BMD (P<0.05). The polymorphism rs1045642 in the ABCB1 gene was associated with increased abdominal fat mass (P<0.05) and decreased appendicular skeletal muscle mass (P<0.05). GC replacement was associated with reduced total BMD (P<0.01), BMD at lumbar spine (P<0.05) and increased abdominal fat (P<0.01). Ongoing GC replacement therapy together with polymorphisms in two genes related with GC sensitivity is associated with abdominal obesity and adverse skeletal health in patients with CS in long-term remission. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.European Journal of Endocrinology 01/2015; 172(1):1-10. DOI:10.1530/EJE-14-0747 · 3.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Evidence of aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) activity in many psychiatric disorders, although not universal, has sparked long-standing interest in HPA hormones as biomarkers of disease or treatment response. HPA activity may be chronically elevated in melancholic depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and schizophrenia. The HPA axis may be more reactive to stress in social anxiety disorder and autism spectrum disorders. In contrast, HPA activity is more likely to be low in PTSD and atypical depression. Antidepressants are widely considered to inhibit HPA activity, although inhibition is not unanimously reported in the literature. There is evidence, also uneven, that the mood stabilizers lithium and carbamazepine have the potential to augment HPA measures, while benzodiazepines, atypical antipsychotics, and to some extent, typical antipsychotics have the potential to inhibit HPA activity. Currently, the most reliable use of HPA measures in most disorders is to predict the likelihood of relapse, although changes in HPA activity have also been proposed to play a role in the clinical benefits of psychiatric treatments. Greater attention to patient heterogeneity and more consistent approaches to assessing treatment effects on HPA function may solidify the value of HPA measures in predicting treatment response or developing novel strategies to manage psychiatric disease. © 2014 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 4:715-738, 2014.04/2014; 4(2):715-38. DOI:10.1002/cphy.c130036
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ABSTRACT: Context: Cognitive function is impaired in patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) in remission. Objective: To study the effects of polymorphisms in genes associated with glucocorticoid (GC) sensitivity on cognitive function in patients with CS in long-term remission. Design: A cross-sectional, case-controlled, single center study. Patients: Fifty-three patients with Cushing's syndrome in remission and 53 controls matched for age, gender and educational level. Main Outcome Measures: Cognitive function, studied using standardized neuropsychological testing, and polymorphisms in the GC receptor (NR3C1; Bcl1 and A3669G), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2; I180V), 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11βHSD1; rs11119328) and ATP binding cassette B1 (ABCB1; rs1045642) genes. The association between cognitive function and polymorphisms were analyzed using linear regression with adjustments for age and educational level. Results: The mean age in patients and controls was 53 ± 14 years. The median (interquartile range) duration of remission was 13 (5-18) years. In patients, SNP rs11119328 was associated with impairments in processing speed, auditory attention, auditory working memory and reading speed. This association was not seen in matched controls. The Bcl1 polymorphism was associated with fatigue and worse visual attention and working memory. The remaining SNPs were not associated with cognitive performance. Conclusion: In this study, polymorphisms in the 11βHSD1 and NR3C1 genes were associated with impaired cognitive function, indicating that GC sensitivity and pre-receptor regulation of GC action may play a role in the long-term consequences of CS. The study provides a novel insight into the etiology of cognitive dysfunction in patients with CS in remission.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 06/2014; 99(9):jc20141906. DOI:10.1210/jc.2014-1906 · 6.31 Impact Factor