Endovascular treatment strategies for acute ischemic stroke
ABSTRACT The limitations of intravenous thrombolysis therapy have paved the way for the development of novel endovascular technologies for use in the setting of acute stroke. These technologies range from direct intraarterial thrombolysis to various thrombus disruption or retrieval devices to angioplasty and stenting. The tools in the armamentarium of the neuroendovascular interventionalist enable fast, effective revascularization to be offered to a wider population of patients that may otherwise have few therapeutic options available to them. In this paper, we review the current state-of-the-art in neuroendovascular intervention for acute ischemic stroke. Particular emphasis is placed on delineating the indications and outcomes for use of these various technologies.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: We evaluated the reliability of eight clinical prediction models for symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) and long-term functional outcome in stroke patients treated with thrombolytics according to clinical practice. Methods: In a cohort of 169 patients, 60 patients (35.5%) received IV rtPA according to the European license criteria. The remaining patients received off-label IV rtPA and/or were treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis. We used receiver operator characteristic curves to analyze the discriminative capacity of the MSS score, the HAT score, the SITS SICH score, the SEDAN score and the GRASPS score for sICH according to the NINDS and the ECASSII criteria. Similarly, the discriminative capacity of the s-TPI, the iScore and the DRAGON score were assessed for the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months poststroke. An area under the curve (c-statistic) >0.8 was considered to reflect good discriminative capacity. The reliability of the best performing prediction model was further examined with calibration curves. Separate analyses were performed for patients meeting the European license criteria for IV rtPA and patients outside these criteria. Results: For prediction of sICH c-statistics were 0.66-0.86 and the MMS yielded the best results. For functional outcome c-statistics ranged from 0.72 to 0.86 with s-TPI as best performer. The s-TPI had the lowest absolute error on the calibration curve for predicting excellent outcome (mRS 0-1) and catastrophic outcome (mRS 5-6). Conclusions: All eight clinical models for outcome prediction after thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke showed fair predictive value in patients treated according daily practice. The s-TPI had the best discriminatory ability and was well calibrated in our study population.Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery 08/2014; 125C:189-193. DOI:10.1016/j.clineuro.2014.08.011 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stroke occurs across the lifespan with unique issues in the fetus, neonate, and child. The past decade has seen substantial advances in paediatric stroke research and clinical care, but many unanswered questions and controversies remain. The pathobiology of perinatal stroke needs to be better understood if prevention strategies are to be realised. Similarly, enhanced understanding of the mechanisms underlying childhood stroke, including cerebral arteriopathies, could inform the development of mechanism-specific treatments. Emerging clinical trials, including studies of neonatal sinovenous thrombosis and childhood arterial stroke, offer the hope of evidence-based treatment options in the near future. Early recognition of stroke in children is a key educational target for both the public and health-care professionals, and has translational potential to advance the application of neuroprotective, thrombolytic, and antithrombotic interventions and rehabilitation strategies to the earliest possible timepoints after stroke onset, improving outcomes and quality of life for affected children and their families. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.The Lancet Neurology 01/2015; 14(1):92-102. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70227-3 · 21.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) due to thrombo-embolic occlusion in the cerebral vasculature is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Although the prognosis is poor for many patients with AIS, a variety of strategies and devices are now available for achieving recanalization in patients with this disease. Here, we review the treatment options for cerebrovascular thromboembolic occlusion with a focus on the evolution of strategies and devices that are utilized for achieving endovascular clot extraction. In order to demonstrate the progression of this treatment strategy over the past decade, we will also present a single-center case series of AIS patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy.06/2013; 3(2):521-39. DOI:10.3390/brainsci3020521